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How does temperature affect the rate of reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Investigation- How does temperature affect the rate of reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid Planning Reaction = Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid = Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen Balanced equation = Mg + 2HCl = MgCl2 + H2 Preliminary work: We are testing for problems before we begin the experiment so that we know what the problems are and how to overcome them, so our experiment will run more smoothly. Problem 1: The magnesium we are using has a magnesium oxide coating, so the acid has to react with the oxide first, slowing down the reaction. Solution: We will dip the magnesium in acid first, to remove the coating. We will then wash and dry the strip of magnesium before using it in the reaction. Problem 2: We want to control the temperature in the experiment, but as it is an exothermic reaction, heat is given off, which may change the rate of reaction. Solution: We will find the minimum amount of heat given off in the reaction. We will find this by testing different amounts of acid with different lengths of magnesium. We have recorded our results in a table, below. Table to show the rise in temperature in a reaction when tested with different lengths and amounts of Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid Temperature (�c) Amount of acid (ml) Length of magnesium (cm) ...read more.

Middle

The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution curve and line of activation energy Number of Particles Energy Observation During the experiment we took our results (times) down in order to be able to see what had happened, and to draw a conclusion from the results. Results. I have recorded my results in a table, and calculated the rates of reaction. To calculate the rate of a reaction you divide 1 by the average time and multiply by 1000. Table to show the results of the experiment to find out how temperature affects the rate of reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid Temp �c Time 1 secs Time 2 secs Time 3 secs Average secs Rate 20 55 51 43 50 20 30 46 29 44 40 25 40 16 18 28 21 48 50 32 26 22 27 37 60 15 18 18 17 59 70 14 14 15 14 71 Analysis From this table I can graph the results by plotting temperature against the rate so that any patterns stand out and the results become clearer. I can also identify and explain any anomalous results for my analysis. I have drawn the graph on graph paper. (See attached). The graph shows my results and proves that my prediction was correct, that as temperature rises, so does the rate. ...read more.

Conclusion

or errors on graph These problems are of human error, so during experiments we must concentrate, be precise and fair at all times. Further work: We could take this experiment further in a number of ways. ==> We could experiment using a wider range of temperatures ==> We could try a different method of following the reaction to see how results differ, eg gas collection as explained in my preliminary work. Dissociation: We could also experiment to find out how the dissociation of different acids affects the rate of reaction. Dissociation is used to measure the strength of an acid. It depends on the equilibrium of an acid. The greater the extent of dissociation, the greater the amount of hydrogen they contain, making them stronger acids. We used hydrochloric acid which goes 100% in a reaction. A strong acid we could use is sulphuric acid, which reacts 90%, releasing 2 hydrogen atoms for each time it reacts, making it stronger than hydrochloric acid which releases 1 hydrogen atom for each time it reacts. Distribution curve showing the amount of particles which gain enough energy for effective collisions after a rise in temperature. This diagram shows particles colliding with the correct orientation for an effective collision. The two reactive atoms in each molecule have to collide in order for the collision to be effective. ...read more.

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