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How Does Temperature Affect The Rate Of Reaction Between Sodium Thiosulphate And Hydrochloric Acid?

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How Does Temperature Affect The Rate Of Reaction Between Sodium Thiosulphate And Hydrochloric Acid? HCl + Na2S2O3 � NaCl+ SO2 + S + H2O Hydrochloric acid + sodium thiosulphate � sodium chloride + sulphur dioxde + sulphur + water A reaction is a process by which a substance, or substances change to produce a new substance or substances. The rate of reaction is the speed at which products are formed and reactants disappear during a chemical reaction. For a reaction to occur the particles must collide with force, as they need enough energy to break the bonds to form new substances. In this reaction, a fine precipitate of sulphur forms. To measure the rate of reaction, we time how long it takes to form the precipitate. The collision theory says that Chemical reactions occur when particles of the reactants collide. They must collide with a certain minimum energy, called the activation energy. The requirements for a chemical reaction to occur are: the reactants must collide with each other, and the molecules must have sufficient energy to initiate the reaction (called activation energy). Planning: In this reaction the solid sulphur formed makes the colourless solution go cloudy. The reaction is usually carried out in a flask that is placed upon a piece of white paper with a black cross on it. At the beginning of the reaction, the cross can be seen easily. As the flask becomes more and more cloudy, the cross gets harder to see. ...read more.


This causes them to move around more. Chemical reactions require collisions, and if particles are moving around more quickly they are more likely to collide. At a cold temperature the reaction will take more time to happen. This is because the particles of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid will not be moving around so quickly, meaning they are less likely to collide; therefore the reaction will take place in more time. This means that my graph with temperature against rate, should have a positive correlation, and will probably be curved as the increase in rate of reaction will not be exactly the same as the temperature is increased. Results: Aimed temperature/ 0C Actual temperature / 0C Time taken for cross to disappear/ seconds Rate of reaction 1/s (rounded to 2dp) 10 12 77 0.01 15 16 64 0.02 20 20 51 0.02 25 26 30 0.03 30 32 22 0.05 35 34 13 0.08 40 39 11 0.09 45 46 10 0.10 50 51 9 0.11 55 53 8 0.13 60 61 6 0.16 65 67 4 0.25 I was able to implement my plan as presented. I have drawn two graphs to illustrate my findings. The first is the temperatures plotted against the time taken in seconds for the cross to vanish, and the second is the temperatures against rate. Both graphs have a curved line of best fit, with only two anomalies showing up. Looking at the above table they do not show up as anomalies, but they are easier to recognise on the graphs, as they sit away from the best-fit line. ...read more.


It is quite difficult to judge properly the exact moment that the cross disappears - the human eye is just not strong enough. It is even more difficult for the higher temperatures as you would have to have an extremely good reaction time to stop the stopwatch exactly when the cross changes. However, my results were consistent even though I did not take multiple results. I only had 2 anomalies, which show up on both graphs. They are not major anomalies, but they sit further from the line of best fit than the other points. The reason for these could be that it was timed wrong. For all of the results, it was very difficult to start the stopwatch exactly at the same the sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid were put together. They would have already started reacting before the stopwatch was started. For further work to the experiment, I could try investigating higher tempratures, although the time taken for the cross to disappear would go down a lot less quickly because it is reaching the boiling point of water, and so the water in the solutions starts to boil and turns to steam. It would be very difficult to get to a higher temperature than 1000C. The decrease of the reaction rate would slow, as it got increasingly difficult for the solution to get hotter. To take it even further I could perform the experiment in a vacuum, as then there would be no other factors that can affect our results, other than temperature, which is all that is wanted as the dependant variable. ...read more.

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