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How does the amount of the enzyme catalayse affect the speed of a chemical reaction

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Introduction

Does the amount of an enzyme affect the speed of reaction and volume of product produced? Oliver Flint Does the amount of an enzyme affect the speed of reaction and volume of product produced? What is an enzyme? An enzyme is a protein strand specifically designed to break down a chemical, in this case called a substrate. Each enzyme will only break down one substrate. An enzyme breaks down a substrate, simply by its design. A basic way of representing this is a diagram like this It shows how a enzyme breaks down a substrate, but in a very basic way, real enzyme diagrams are far more complicated and look like a intermingled mesh of ribbons. The Diagram shows the breaking down of a substrate in the four stages of the reaction. The first stage of reaction is the substrate being drawn to the active site of the enzyme. ( the active site of an enzyme is the area where the reaction occurs) when the substrate is encapsulated in the enzyme, the forces that drew the substrate toward the enzyme continue to draw the particular components of the substrate away from each other. This is known as an enzyme product complex. After the products are separated then the products will leave the active site of the enzyme, leaving the enzyme ready to repeat the process as the enzyme only catalyses the reaction but is not part of the reaction. ...read more.

Middle

Getting my partner to push the bung into the top of the test tube to ensure no oxygen is lost as soon as the yeast ands hydrogen peroxide have been combined then I will start the stop watch, every 20 seconds I will record the results. I will test each weight of yeast 3 times and if there are any clear outliers I will record and discount them but still make note so I can try and hypothesise s to why the result was outside the normal parabolas. To ensure my safety and the safety of those around me I will conduct myself in a manor appropriate for a laboratory, I will ensure that both myself and my partners are wearing safety goggles and that we do not spill any hydrogen peroxide or yeast. I will handle laboratory glassware carefully so as not to break or damage it. Conducting the experiment I conducted My experiment with out any unexpected situations, and only one outlying result. below are my results. Amount of Yeast Test Time(Seconds) 0.2g 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0.2g 1 5 7 8 9 9 2 4 6 8 9 10 11 11 3 7 11 12 13 13 16 24 28 31 32 Mean (1dp) 5.3 8.0 9.3 10.3 10.7 11.0 11.0 Amount of Yeast Test Time(Seconds) 0.4g 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0.4g 1 9 10 12 13 14 14 2 9 11 12 13 14 14 3 7 9 10 11 12 12 25 30 34 37 40 40 0 Mean (1dp) ...read more.

Conclusion

You start the stopwatch as you push the syringes plunger down (2). Oxygen produced pushes plunger back up syringe tube giving accurate reading. Measure every ten seconds, until you get 5 consecutive results that are identical. Then repeat 3 times. After you have tested one weight of yeast 3 times move onto the next weight of yeast, to get a wider spread of information I would test more than 2 weights of yeast, I would suggest 0.1g, 0.2g, 0.3g, 0.4g and 0.5g of yeast. Another suggestion to improve reaction time would be to grind the yeast to a powder, so more surface area is available to react with. And test the speed of the reaction of this against un-ground yeast.. Conclusion To conclude, I believe that I have found evidence that the increased weight of yeast sped up the production of oxygen but not the volume of oxygen produced as the amount oh hydrogen peroxide stayed constant but nearing the end of the reaction the oxygen was produced in un-measurably small quantities, I consider this an error in the method, because of the way we recorded results it was inevitable that this result would occur. If I was to re-do the experiment I would use my method so as to capture all oxygen, measure it more accurately and not lose any results. And also I would plot the graph in a way that shows how much gas produced since last reading so it displays the peak of the reaction. ...read more.

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