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# How does the concentration of acid affect the rate of a reaction with calcium carbonate?

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Introduction

How does the concentration of acid affect the rate of a reaction with calcium carbonate? Calcium + Hydrochloric => Calcium + Carbon + Water Carbonate Acid Chloride Dioxide CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) => CaCl2 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l) Introduction I will be using the reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid to see how the concentration of acid affects the rate of a reaction. By doing the above experiment I will prove that the higher the concentration of acid, the faster a reaction will occur. I have carried out a previous experiment called the 'Disappearing Cross', in which I used the reaction between thiosulphate, hydrochloric acid and water to see how concentration affects the rate of reaction. When we added the hydrochloric acid to the water and thiosulphate a reaction occurred, causing the water to become foggy so that the cross was no longer visible through the conical flask. The results for the Disappearing Cross experiment were as follows; Volume of Thiosulphate (Cm3) Volume of Water (Cm3) Volume of HCl (Cm3) Concentration (%) Time taken for X to disappear (seconds) ...read more.

Middle

When there is a low concentration the particles are more spread out so collide less, therefore less successful collisions occur. Below is a diagram showing the collision theory and the differences in reaction rates with high and low concentration. I have also used the results from my 'Disappearing Cross' experiment to help me come to this prediction. As you can see in the graph below showing the results I collected from the experiment this shows that the greater the concentration the faster the reaction time. As you can see here the graph shows a correlation between the concentration and time taken for the cross to disappear. It shows that the higher the concentration the quicker the reaction time, supporting what I predict will happen with the experiment between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate. Results The result table on the previous page shows the results I collected during the experiment. Analysis Of Results My table of results collected from the experiments done show that as the concentration of acid increases the rate of reaction also increases. This is because when the concentration is increased there are more molecules to react causing more successful collisions and the quicker the reaction energy is used up, causing there to be a faster reaction time than there would be if the concentration was lower. ...read more.

Conclusion

As you can see on our graph the axis showing the experiments done with 15cm3 and 20cm3 of HCl are very close and according to the general pattern in results, shouldn't be. Ways of avoiding the gas syringe sticking would be to make sure that the clamp isn't too tight around it or you could use a different method of collecting the gas, where you fill a measuring cylinder full of water and place it upside down in a water bath with a tube that the gas can travel through and displace the water in cylinder, allowing you to measure the gas collected. Another error that may have occurred is a transcription error, where someone may have written down incorrect results or misread the stopwatch or gas syringe. There will also be timing errors where the stopwatch was started at different points or the bung hasn't been put on the conical flask quick enough but these are just because of human reactions and are generally unavoidable. In summary I think that the experiment we did was sufficient for the purpose we needed and concluded the theory that Higher concentration = Quicker reaction ~ 1 ~ ...read more.

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