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How does the concentration of hydrochloric Acid affect the rate of reaction?

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Introduction

Phillip Harrison Chemistry Coursework - Investigation How does the concentration of hydrochloric Acid affect the rate of reaction? Hydrochloric Acid (aq) + Magnesium (s) --> Magnesium Chloride (aq) + Hydrogen (g) Factors affecting the rate of reaction There are many factors that have an affect on the rate of a chemical reaction. The speed of reaction means how fast the reactants change into the desired product. The consequence of this is that more of the products are made in a certain period of time if it has a high rate of reaction. Factors can only have two affects on a reaction making the reaction happen faster or slower depending on how it interferes with the reaction, the factors never change the outcome of the reaction, the final product. This ability to change the rate of the reaction enables us to control reactions and predict how changing variables affects the experiment. Rate of reaction = 1 _ Time Taken Reacting chemicals must either: * Collide with each other. * Collide with enough energy to break the existing bonds. The energy required to break these bonds is called the Activation Energy (EA) ...read more.

Middle

The timer starts from when the Sodium Thiousulphate is dropped into the solution and is stopped when the (X) under the beaker is no longer visible. How fast the reaction is depends on how quickly the mark under the beaker is no longer visible. I decided this was not a viable or easily measure test. The measuring comes down to human judgement, which varies from person to person. It would have been possible to use light sensing equipment to accurately measure the time that it takes for the cross to become no longer visible. But as this equipment was not at my disposal I decided that this test would not be accurate enough for me to get a good set of precise results. The second preliminary was the reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid. It involved putting Hydrochloric acid into a beaker and then adding the Calcium Carbonate in the form of larger 'chunks', the beaker would immediately be attached to a 'gas syringe', this piece of equipment that measures how much gas the reaction gives off in cm3. This meant we could accurately measure how much gas is given off from the reaction, giving us a precise value rather than estimation like in the first experiment. ...read more.

Conclusion

Test number one Moles 10 Seconds 20 Seconds 30 Seconds 40 Seconds 50 Seconds 60 Seconds 1.0 5.0 13.0 22.5 26.0 33.0 35.5 1.1 5.5 20.0 24.5 32.0 36.0 36.5 1.2 6.5 20.5 26.5 35.5 36.0 36.0 1.3 8.0 21.0 29.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 1.4 9.0 24.0 31.5 36.5 36.5 36.5 Test Number two Moles 10 Seconds 20 Seconds 30 Seconds 40 Seconds 50 Seconds 60 Seconds 1.0 4.5 12.5 21.0 26.0 32.5 34.5 1.1 5.5 20.5 25.0 31.0 34.5 35.0 1.2 5.5 21.0 28.5 34.0 35.5 35.5 1.3 7.0 22.5 29.0 34.5 35.0 35.0 1.4 9.5 25.0 32.0 35.0 36.5 36.5 Test Number three Moles 10 Seconds 20 Seconds 30 Seconds 40 Seconds 50 Seconds 60 Seconds 1.0 5.0 12.5 26.5 33.0 34.5 35.0 1.1 6.0 21.5 24.5 31.5 32.5 32.5 1.2 6.0 23.0 27.0 34.0 34.5 34.5 1.3 7.0 23.5 29.0 35.0 36.0 36.0 1.4 9.5 25.0 32.5 35.5 35.5 35.5 Averages Moles 10 Seconds 20 Seconds 30 Seconds 40 Seconds 50 Seconds 60 Seconds 1.0 4.8 12.7 23.3 28.3 34.3 35.0 1.1 5.7 20.7 24.7 31.5 34.3 34.7 1.2 6.0 21.5 27.3 34.5 35.3 35.3 1.3 7.3 22.3 29.0 34.8 35.3 35.3 1.4 9.3 24.7 32.0 35.7 36.2 36.2 ...read more.

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This piece of course work is clear and concise. It is generally well written with high quality data for the concentrations chosen. The range of concentrations limits the conclusions that can be drawn. The main issue with this piece of coursework is that is does not address a lot of the key elements required to achieve a good grade. Improvements including key elements that have been omitted are suggested throughout.

Marked by teacher Cornelia Bruce 17/04/2013

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