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How Does The Concentration Of Sodium Thiosulfate Affect The Rate Of This Reaction?

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Introduction

Candidate Number: 8085 Rate of reaction coursework How Does The Concentration Of Sodium Thiosulfate Affect The Rate Of This Reaction? Student name: Banudi Srikanth Teacher name: Mrs Ogunkoya Class/Set: 10a2 Candidate number: 8085 CONTENTS Background Science........................................................................................................................... Page 3,4 What is a preliminary test? ............................................................................................................... Page 5 Preliminary apparatus .................................................................................................................... Page 5,6 The preliminary results table .......................................................................................................... Page 5 Preliminary safety ................................................................................................................................. Page 5 Methodology ............................................................................................................................................ Page 7 How to make it a fair test ............................................................................................................... Page 7,8 DO CONTENTS PAGE BACKGROUND SCIENCE The 5 Factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction: 1. Concentration 2. Temperature 3. Gas pressure 4. Catalyst 5. Surface area of particles (1) Rates of reaction: How quickly a reaction happens is called the rate of reaction. Chemical reactions take place when two or more chemicals react with one another by colliding with each other. The increase in temperature increases the amount of collisions between particles, this fastens the reaction. If a reaction has a low rate that means the molecules combine at a slower speed than a reaction with a high rate. Particles need a minimum amount of kinetic movement if they are going to react when they collide. This is known as Activation energy. THE COLLISION THEORY The collision theory is the idea that different reactions happen at different rates. Reactions that occur slowly have a lower rate of reaction. Fast reactions are due to an increase of collisions; slow reactions are due to decrease in collisions. Reactions that happen quickly have a high rate of reaction (e.g. explosions). Concentration: The concentration of a solution is how strong the solution is. A stronger acid contains more acid particles and less water particles than a weaker acid. Increasing the concentration of a solution leads to more collisions (greater frequency of collisions) so the rate of the reaction goes up. With a more concentrated acid, the number of acid particles is greater, so the number of collisions is greater and the rate of the reaction is higher (faster.) ...read more.

Middle

8. Carefully pour the solution into the sink straight after each test, thoroughly rinsing the measuring cylinders and conical flask with plenty of water each time. I decided to add both the Sodium Thiosulfate Solution and Hydrochloric Acid at the same time, as it makes the outcome of the result more reliable. Main Experiment Results Table Sodium Thiosulfate Solution Hydrochloric Acid Reading (seconds) Average time taken Rate Volume of water (cm3) Volume of Sodium Thiosulfate (cm3) Concentration (M) Volume of Hydrochloric Acid (cm3) Concentration (M) 1st test 2nd test 3rd test Average rate = 1st+2nd + 3rd/3 Rate of reaction = 1/average rate ( s-1) 1 9 0.9 10 1 7.93 8.69 7.94 8.19 0.12 2 8 0.8 10 1 10.09 9.97 10.34 10.13 0.10 3 7 0.7 10 1 8.87 12.10 9.93 10.30 f0.10 4 6 0.6 10 1 12.81 11.91 11.59 12.10 0.08 5 5 0.5 10 1 14.69 18.68 19.44 17.60 0.06 6 4 0.4 10 1 24.94 19.78 24.73 23.15 0.04 7 3 0.3 10 1 18.81 18.40 34.60 23.94 0.04 8 2 0.2 10 1 55.23 61.09 53.38 56.57 0.02 9 1 0.1 10 1 94.00 85.62 86.63 88.75 0.01 I have made some changes to my table. Some of these changes are that I have applied an clear subheading under each row to organise the presentation of the table, making it clear and easier to understand. One of five subheadings I have inserted is ?Sodium Thiosulfate Solution?, under this are 3 rows of broken down areas of the subject; Volume of water (cm3), Volume of Sodium Thiosulfate (cm3) and Concentration (M). Another adjustment I have done is added on three readings instead of one as it is one of many factors that show from my table - for my experiment to be reliable. How to make it a fair test To make sure my results are accurate and reliable the experiment will be kept as fair as possible by making sure the following things are kept constant: 1. ...read more.

Conclusion

But on my third test it suddenly drops to 07.25 seconds. This may have happened due to slow reaction-time when timing. As I draw my graph I expect to clearly see an outlier because of this odd result. I feel the method that was used to collect the results was very successful because there were no errors in my results. My results were tested again in a repeat experiment, the results of which were almost identical to the first results, only fluctuating within one second. The most difficult part of the method was measuring accurately the amount of sodium thiosulphate, HCL and deionised water in the measuring cylinders. I found this difficult because the cylinders were not as accurate as I would have liked and relied on my eye to judge when the liquid lever was equal with the intervals on the side of the cylinder. The method used produced results accurate enough to show to show that as the concentration of sodium thiosulphate increases, so does the rate of reaction, but the method was not perfect as it was subject to human error. The results were not as accurate as they possibly could be because of various constrictions in the lab in which the experiment was carried out. The most accurate measuring cylinders used to measure the amounts of acid and sodium thiosulphate and rely on the human eye to judge when the amount is accurate. This could have caused slight errors in the amounts of solution or acid being used. A way to correct this could be to use a more accurate piece of measuring equipment such as a pipette. Another possible problem could come from judging when the black X has disappeared from view. The human eye is not accurate enough to judge the instant the black X disappears consistently. This could be solved by using something more accurate to measure how much precipitate has formed, and when the amount formed has blocked the X on the paper underneath the flask. ...read more.

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