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How Does The Increase In The Length Of The Carbon Chain Affect The Energy Produced When Different Alcohol's Are Burnt.

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Introduction

How Does The Increase In The Length Of The Carbon Chain Affect The Energy Produced When Different Alcohol's Are Burnt Sarah Robertson P O A E How Does The Increase In The Length Of The Carbon Chain Affect The Energy Produced When Different Alcohol's Are Burnt Enthalpy change is the difference between the energy into a chemical reaction and the energy released in a chemical reaction. Enthalpy Change = Energy In - Energy Out An exothermic reaction is one where the total energy of the products is less than the total energy of the reactants. An endothermic reaction is one where the total energy of the products is greater than the total energy of the reactants. Exothermic reactions give off heat energy and bonds are made in the reaction and endothermic reactions take in heat whilst the bonds are broken in the reaction. The energy released from these types of energy changes come from the bonds within the reactants. The alcohols are made of carbon chains and the bigger the carbon chain the bigger the size of the flame and an increase in energy that is given out. The factors which might affect the results collect could be, * Volume of water in calorimeter, * Distance between the flame and the calorimeter. ...read more.

Middle

Careful when handling. Eye protection must be worn and if possible gloves, to reduce skin contact with the alcohols. Alcohol burners If broken, they could cause cuts from the glass. Careful when handling. Additionally try to protect skin and wear gloves to reduce skin contact. Naked flame Being burnt. Being careful and aware when the alcohol burner is alight and a flame is present. Water in Calorimeter This water will heat up and so there is a risk of being scalded. Careful when handling and pouring water into and out of the Calorimeter. Calorimeter This will get hot during the experiment so there is a risk of being burnt. Careful when handling and when it is in use do not touch. Further to my prediction, the carbon chains increase be a single carbon bond each time, meaning there will be a specific rise in the energy give out of 496 kJ/mol. The bond structures for each of the alcohols. Methanol H HCOH single carbon bond. H Ethanol H H HCCOH two carbon bonds H H Propanol H H H HCCCOH three carbon bonds H H H Butanol H H H H HCCCCOH four carbon bonds H H H H Pentanol H H H H H HCCCCCOH five carbon bonds H H H H H The following calculations are for the ideal results. ...read more.

Conclusion

Evaluation The results collected were fairly accurate and reliable to the method used. The results were plotted on the graph and then a line of best fit was drawn. The results were all very close to the line of best fit except for one anomalous result. This anomalous result could have been due to an inaccuracy of measurement from possibly the thermometer or the balance. The thermometer had an accuracy to 0 decimal place (0.d.p) with the possibility of a +-0.5�C change. The balance had accuracy to 1.d.p. with the possibility of a +-0.05g change. The reliability of the method was quite reliable as the experiment was repeated three times on each of the alcohols gaining a range of results. Some possible improvements to the method might be for the experiments to be repeated several more times so an even greater range of results could be collected. Additionally a balance with accuracy of to more decimal places could be used to gain a more accurate weight of the alcohol burners. Additionally, a data logger could be used instead of a thermometer so the temperature readings could be more accurate and reliable. Additionally, the use of lid could be used to reduce the loss of heat energy from the top of the calorimeter, or the use of an insulated cup. By using an insulated cup, the amount of waste energy lost would be reduced making the results more accurate and reliable overall. ...read more.

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