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How does the Temperature affect the rate of the reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Acid.

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Introduction

For our investigation we will be looking at how the temperature affects the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and an acid. To make sure the experiment is a fair test we must first see which other factors may effect the investigation and how we can control them. The temperature, concentration of the two solutions, the light intensity, the depth of the solution and the person judging whether they can still see the cross are all factors which may affect the rate of the reaction. Description of reaction: When sodium thiusulphate are added together they react as shown below: HCL + sodium thiosulphate sodium chloride + sulphur dioxide + sulphur + water. HCL(aq) + Na2S2O3(aq) NaCl(aq) + SO2(g) + S(s) + H2O(l) The sulphur produced is held in suspension turning what was a colourless solution into a clouded one. This is what causes the cross to disappear. When we are measuring the time for the cross to disappear we are also measuring the time for a set amount of sulphur to be produced. The rate: The rate of reaction is the speed at which the reaction takes place. Speed are measured as distance over time such as metres a second (m/s) and miles per hour (mph). A speed could also be the speed at which someone works out at, say a factory worker makes 5 footballs per hour so there work speed would be number of footballs over hours so in this case 5 footballs/hour. The speed (rate) at which a reaction happens at is written in the same way but in stead of a distance over time or footballs over time it is the point of the reaction you are measuring upto over time. The point you measure upto in this experiment is Theoretical background and prediction: Since starting chemistry in year 7 we have performed and been shown experiment and demonstrations which involve reactions. ...read more.

Middle

The stopwatch will be started as soon as the first drop of acid touches the sodium thiosulphate every experiment. Safety: Goggles will be worn at all times during the experiment, as safety is paramount. As acids are being handled there is the off chance that some could well be splashed into the experimenters eyes which is goggles are warn will reduce the risk are any making contact with the eye itself. As the acid is very weak and watered down lab coats are not compulsory but if any if spilt on ones hand or other areas of bare skin it should be washed immediately. Once we have completed our experiment we will wash our hands as we will have been handling acids which are corrosive so we will need to wash any which has managed to get onto our skin off. Treatment of results: When the results have been collected they will be put in a table of results showing both the recorded times taken for each experiment and the average of these two. Anomalous results will be highlighted in the table and will not have been taken into account when the graphs are drawn. The results will be used to produce two graphs, the first of which will have temperature plotted against time and the Second will have temperature plotted against one over time taken, which is the same as the rate of reaction. A line of best fit will be drawn for both graphs. Method: The apparatus was set-up as shown in the diagram. 8 ml of 8g/dm sodium thiosulphate was measured into a 10 ml measuring cylinder and 42 ml of distilled water was measured out into a 100 ml measuring cylinder. Both the 8 ml of sodium thiosulphate and the 42 ml of distilled water were poured into a 250 ml beaker together. A thermometer was then put in the beaker and a petri was placed over the top of the beaker to stop the solution evaporating when it was heated up. ...read more.

Conclusion

I would also the same experiment varying the temperature with a couple of different concentrations to observe how greatly the temperature affected the rate at a higher temperature. I would try the experiment over a greater temperature. Range using intervals of five degrees Celsius rather than ten, which we were unable to do due to time. I would not use room temperature as it went up by a degree during the experiment and I had no way of cooling down the solution to allow me to do the experiment again at 19 degrees Celsius. I would investigate how exactly concentration affects the reaction. A method for an improved version is shown below: Diagram: Method: The apparatus was set-up as shown in the diagram. 8 ml of 8g/dm sodium thiosulphate was measured into a 10 ml measuring cylinder and 42 ml of distilled water was measured out into a 100 ml measuring cylinder. Both the 8 ml of sodium thiosulphate and the 42 ml of distilled water were poured into a 250 ml beaker together. A thermometer was then put in the beaker and a petri was placed over the top of the beaker to stop the solution evaporating when it was heated up. The beaker was then placed in a water bath and heated. Heating was stopped when the temperature reached 30 degrees Celsius. The Beaker was placed in the sealed container and the data logger was started as soon as the HCL was added. The lid was place on top of the container as soon the HCL was added. The light sensor measured the percentage of light passing through the solution and the data logger logs how long it takes for the solution to only allow 20% of the light pass through. The time the Logger showed would be recorded. The time taken was recorded and the apparatus was clean thoroughly. The same experiment was then repeated again a second time and at 40 C, 50 C, 60 C and 70 C, it was repeated for these temperatures a second time as well. ...read more.

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