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How does the temperature of the sodium thiosulphate affect the rate of reaction with hydrochloric acid?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

How does the temperature of the sodium thiosulphate affect the rate of reaction with hydrochloric acid? Introduction: A chemical reaction is a process in which one set of chemical substances, known as the reactants, are changed into another substance or set of substances, called the products. The factors that affect the rate of chemical reactions include: * Temperature. * Concentration. * Particle size. * Pressure. * Using a catalyst. * Light. I have chosen to investigate how increasing temperature can alter the rate of a reaction When sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid are introduced to each other, four products are created. The products of this reaction are: Sodium + Hydrochloric acid ? Sodium + sulphur + water Thiosulphate acid chloride dioxide The time taken for the reaction is measured by the time taken for sulphur to be precipitated. The sulphur becomes a milky white colour, which obscures a cross, drawn on a piece of paper placed below the conical flask or a light sensor placed below the conical flask. I preferred using a light sensor as it is more accurate because: * It is not reliant on people's eyesight * It is electronic, very sensitive and takes many readings (so there is a very small interval i.e. time gap) * The amount of light will be the same each time it's repeated but the cross may be different if you drew it more than once * If you recorded the light level every few seconds then you have results to ...read more.

Middle

Apparatus: * 1 tripod * 1 clay triangle * 1 conical flask * 1 light sensor * 1 clamp stand * 1 timer * 1 ten cm� measuring cylinder * 2 fifty cm� measuring cylinders * Sodium thiosulphate * Hydrochloric acid * Distilled water Experiment plan: Method: To successfully complete my experiment I had to complete the following steps. * I set up the equipment the same as I decided to in my experiment plan. * I collected my measurements of sodium thiosulphate, hydrochloric acid and distilled water. The measurements for these are below: Sodium Thiosulphate - 30cm� (use a 50cm� measuring cylinder) Hydrochloric acid - 5cm� (use a 10cm� measuring cylinder Distilled water - 20cm� (use a 50cm� measuring cylinder) * I placed each of the measured solutions in a thermostatically controlled water bath and only mixed them together when they had reached the correct temperature. In between temperature changes the flasks were cooled before fresh solutions were added. * I will repeat that step three times for each temperature I test; I will then calculate the average of each time per temperature. (I will calculate the average by using the mean) Fair Test: To make my experiment fair, I will always keep everything the same apart from one variable or effector. I will measure all the sodium thiosulphate to 30cm� and all the hydrochloric acid to 5 cm� and all the water to 20 cm� so that there is the same volume of atoms in the solution. Variable (factor) ...read more.

Conclusion

The results in graph form seemed to confirm my predictions and most of the points were close to the best-fit line. I do think I took enough readings because the graphs all tailed off as the reaction slowed. I do think my method was good because it was easy to keep the apparatus; solutions and the order of work the same. The only difficulty was keeping the temperature constant and possibly it may have cooled a few degrees during the course of the experiment, which was confirmed by keeping a thermometer inside to measure the temperature. The apparatus and the way I took the readings was good as I always kept everything the same and made sure the light sensor was reading the correct part of the liquid. I made sure I used a good range of readings with the same sufficient amount of intervals as it was constant and they were all read after the same amount of time. If I did the experiment again the improvements I can suggest would be to keep all the solutions in a water bath at a constant temperature throughout the whole experiment. Also I could repeat the whole experiment but this time using the cross on the paper underneath the conical flask to compare with the light sensor. The other questions I could investigate on the same topic are if chemicals react in the same way if they are done in cold temperatures going lower. ...read more.

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