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How does the temperature of the substrate effect the rate of the reaction with the enzyme?

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Introduction

Plan Aim: How does the temperature of the substrate effect the rate of the reaction with the enzyme? Apparatus needed: Six boiling tubes Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) Potato Delivery tube Three beakers Knife Pestle & mortar Measuring cylinder Ruler White tile Test tube rack Method: First, get all the apparatus needed and collect the hydrogen peroxide in one of the beakers. In one of the other beakers put in cold water and in the third beaker put hot water. Then cut the potato in to 1cm cubes. Decide how many cubes are you going to use for each test and then cut the appropriate number of cubes needed. (Make sure that you use the same amount of potato in each test, if you do not then this will ruin the experiment making it an unfair test.) After this measure some hydrogen peroxide and put it in one of the test tubes, note down the amount of H2O2 you put in and put the same amount in the other four test tubes. Put in some cold water in the sixth test tube from the beaker. Take the temperature of the H2O2 in one of the tubes and record it. ...read more.

Middle

Prediction. I predict that the higher the temperature will be the faster the reactions will be, therefore there will be more active site's and more molecules will be broken down faster. The enzyme and the substrate work like a key and a lock. The enzyme is the lock and the substrate is the key. (See diagram) When the temperature is raised, more fits are successful. Enzymes work best at body temperature, which is 37 c. However, I think that if the temperature goes over 50 degrees the enzymes will stop working or start to become inactivated. When an enzyme is inactivated its shape changes this is called denature, and it can no longer fit the substrate (See diagram). As we are investigating temperature, the collision theory plays a big part in this experiment. The collision theory says that particles react by colliding with each other, if they get hotter the move around faster because they have more energy, so therefore causing more effective collisions (see diagram). Therefore, when we increase the temperature we increase the rate of reaction with it. Therefore, even if there was a small amount of enzyme and a large amount of substrate the reactions will be fast. ...read more.

Conclusion

I think that this experiment was not very accurate because there were a number of measurements that we could not get right. E.g. cutting the potato into 1cm cubes, having the exact amount of H2O2 each time, and how much oxygen was given off in each reaction. We could improve this if we had more precise measuring equipment, like a 15 ml measuring cylinder, so we could just fill it to the top. When we were counting the number of bubbles made in 1 min, I noticed that they were not all the same size that means that different amounts of oxygen were given off each time. We could extend this investigation by recording how much oxygen was made by the reaction. To do this we would need a syringe on top of the test tube and we are able to see how much oxygen was being made. The evidence that I produced was not 100% accurate, but we could make the results more reliable by doing more repeat readings and making it a fairer test. My results matched my prediction, although the last reading was awkward and did not fit in the pattern when you looked at it. However, I knew that this was ok and it should have happened because I had predicted that the enzyme would stop working after 50 c, as it will be inactivated. Investigating Enzymes ...read more.

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