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How dose temperature affect the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid.

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Teaching group: Priestly Subject: Chemistry Teacher: Mr M Bownass Tutor group: 10 C How dose temperature affect the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid. Method Aim The aim of this experiment is to find out what factors effect the rate of reaction. Also to test the theory of Maxwell and Batsman. I will investigate how temperature effect the rate of reaction but other factors that affect it will to have to be taken into account. Equation The reaction will be between the magnesium and hydrochloric acid. Below are the word and symbol equations of this reaction. magnesium + hydrochloric acid --> magnesium chloride + hydrogen Mg + HCl --> MgCl + H Preliminary Work Before staring to plan or even attempt my investigation their were three problems that needed solving. Without this my experiment would not be as fair as it with suitable solutions. The problems that I have found did not come in any set order, I will start with the easiest. This is the fact that magnesium floats in hydrochloric acid. This means that much as half of its surface area will not be in contact with the water. I have seen magnesium react before and I know that it will react quite vigaressly and this will make it move around a lot so the area of contact will change all the time. This is one of the factors that determine the rate of reaction so if it will not be constant than the test will not be very fair. Their is nothing that I could have done to keep the magnesium from not moving around. As well as that I could not made it heavier so it would sink into the acid. The solution that I have found is the simplest and will make the test more fair in my opinion. This is to suture the acid and make sure that magnesium is always covered in acid. ...read more.


Also the collision frequency increases and this to has an impact on probability to make it bigger. The energy that is spend to heat the substances can only be used to increase the speed at which the molecules go, so substances with higher temperature must have the molecules moving faster. The probability of effective collisions means that there are going to be more of them, so the rate of reaction will increase. There are so many molecules in the substances that are used and this means that probability is equal almost6 exactly to what will happen with the real reaction. More effective collisions mean that the rate of reaction will increase. Some further research I have done is about 'Maxwell and Boltzman' theory. This is about the temperature and how it affects the rate of reaction. I have drawn a graph that helps to explain it. This is general and dose not have any numbers on because it could be interpreted for any reaction. The graph shows curves for different temperatures, one 20�C and another one 30�C. It also shows the different numbers of molecules that are any given temperature. The area that is belief the two curves is equal to the number of molecules, it is the same for both curves. But they are distributed differently. The highest point in the curve is where the most molecules are and the most molecules in 30�C have a higher temperature. However we are especially interested in the molecules that are after the line of temperature enough to make an effective collision. It could be clearly seen that the numbers of molecules is higher for the 30�C curve then for the 20�C. The area equals to the number of molecules and it is shaded in pencil for the 20�C curve, and the area under 30�C curve is shaded with blue lines. It could be easily seen the the area shaded in blue covers all the pencil shaded area and extends beyond that. ...read more.


It could be easily seen the the area shaded in blue covers all the pencil shaded area and extends beyond that. Also it is roughly twice as big because the temperature is a ten degrees rice. This theory is backed up by many experiments and is scientifically proven. I did not generalise the temperature because it is also important to see that their is a ten degrees difference. Rate of reaction depends on the number of molecules that have sufficient energy to make an effective collision' more particles- faster rate of reaction. I want to also see how a ten degree increases changes the rate of reaction and if these results agree with my prediction. To see the change I will need to do some calculation and a results from a temperatures with a difference of ten. For example I will pick 35�C (31.9) and 45�C (46.8). To calculate the increase in percentages I did the next calculation. 46.8/ 31.9* 100= 146.7% This means that the increase is only 46.7%. This is the same as the increase of 1.467. This dose not agree with what I investigated in my prediction. This is the research I have done about a ten degree rise. It is proven that this doubles the rate of most reactions. This reseasurch was done in the internet, the firs useful website that I have found was: "http://scidiv.bcc.ctc.edu/wv/7/0007-005-rea-t-cat.html" Under the following title the above was clearly stated. "Collision theory and temperature effects on rates Reaction rates are roughly doubled when the temperature increases by 10 degrees Kelvin." To convert it into numbers and be able to compeer this with the increase I can say that to double something is the same as timing it by 2. This is differnt to what I found I my practical results. To see if my increase was stable I picked another 2 results- 25�C (23.7) and 35�C (31.9). 31.9/ 23.7* 100= 134.6% The number is slightly different to what I saw before with my results and even more different to the double increase that should happen in theory. ...read more.

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3 star(s)

This is a low three star report. It explains a number of different ways that rate of reaction could be measured. There are lots of spelling and grammatical errors which limit the quality of the piece. More scientifically technical improvements have been mentioned throughout in the relevant sections of the report.

Marked by teacher Cornelia Bruce 18/03/2013

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