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How factors influence the energy change when metals are added to a metal salt solution?

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Introduction

How factors influence the energy change when metals are added to a metal salt solution? Skill P : Planning Experiments Aim: My aim is to see what factors influence the energy change when metals are added to a metal salt solution. Introduction: The energy released when one metal displaces another can be used in industry, for example in the reaction of aluminium with iron oxide to weld rails together. Your task is to devise a plan to show how the temperature rise, and hence the energy cange, is affected by adding different metals to copper sulphate solution. A suitable metal woould be iron, which reacts according to the equation: Fe(s)+CuSO4(aq)?FeSO4(aq)+Cu(s) Prediction: In my experiment, I can predict that when we add different metals to the Copper Sulphate liquid in forms of powder, the temperature will rise when the reaction takes place, in the polystyrene cup. The more reactive the metal the more the temperature produced, so the more energy will be given off at the end of the experiment. Our expeiment was bast around the ractivity series: Calcium most reactive Magnesium Aluminium Carbon Zinc Iron Tin Lead Hydrogen Copper Silver Gold Platinum least reactive For this experiment, I chose to use six different metals, which are in bold writing in the reactivity series, the more reactive the metals are the more heat will be produced, ...read more.

Middle

Independent variable: My independent variable is the different metal we use, as the metal is higher in the reactivity series the result of temperature will change. I will change my independent by changing the metal, after having weighed it. Control variables: My control variables are temperature, correct mass of metal, what solution I put for the metal to react with. All these do not change threw out my experiment. I kept these variables by staying in the same room, keeping my experiment in one fixt place. Other wise the other control variables were very easy to keep constant. Range: My range varies from most reactive, which is magnesium to one of the less reactive, which is lead. Passing threw Aluminium, Zinc, Iron and Tin. Reliability: My results are as reliable as we could get them in the amount of time we were given to do the experiment. I repeated each of my experiment three times with the same concentration of gas and the same control variables. My results varied +- 0.1 degrees Method: Equipment used: -A polystyrene cup -2?100cm3 cylinder to measure the copper sulphate -Metals: 0.56g of Iron 0.65g of Zinc 2.07g of lead 0.27g of Aluminium 1.19g of Tin 0.24g of magnesium -500 ml beaker to place the polystyrene cup -500 ml beaker to place the copper sulphate -A thermometer to measure the temperature of the liquid Safety: Before starting there are a few safety aspects, which we have to be careful of. ...read more.

Conclusion

35*0.8*4.2=117.6/0.005=23520 KJ/mol Magnesium: When 35g of copper sulphate with lead the temperature rises by 8.8oC so if water is heater up at 4.2J per gr per 1oC 35*4.2*15=2205.6/0.005=441000 KJ/mol Part A:Analysing evidence and drawing conclusions In my prediction, I predicted that the highest the metal is in the reactivity series the more energy will be given off, the higher the tempeature will be after the mix between copper sulphate and the different mtals. But when doing this expewriment, I found out that eventhough Aluminium is place quite high in the reactivity series it reacted less with the copper sulphate solution then iron did with the copper sulphate solution. This could be explained by saying aluminium is oxidized, at the start the aluminium has a layer of oxide protecting it from anycorrosion or type of reaction. This layer of oxide is so stable that it will not react with anything. Magnesium reacts because the ferther the electrons are from the nucleus the faster they will be lost, so the more energy will be given off. In my experiment the most reactive with copper sulphate solution, was Magnesium then Zinc then Iron then Tin, after that Aluminium and Lead gave off the same amount of energy. This could make us conclud that Magnesium electrons are ferther away from the nucleus then Zinc electrons are away from it's nucleus. ...read more.

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