• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10

How higher or lower concentration and temperature affects rates of reactions

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

How higher or lower concentration and temperature affects rates of reactions Parasto Aghazadeh Parisa Aghazadeh Ahmed Laajam Mohit Parkash Chemistry A Mr.Hatton N1A IEGS Aim; The aim of this lab is to investigate the rate on the reaction between sodium thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid, when the values of concentration and the temperature is either decreased or increased of the Hydrochloric Acid. Background; The definition of a reaction is when two or more reactants connect to form a new precipitate. The rate means how low/fast something takes place and it is the measurement of time and change that happens in a component. The rate can be used in any suitable measurements such as seconds, minutes and even hours. For these reasons the rate of a reaction means how fast/low it takes for the reactants to form a new precipitate. Hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate are both clear and colorless liquids, but in the reaction between them a precipitate of yellow and cloudy sulphur forms to measure the rate of the reaction. The aim is to time how long it takes for the reaction to form the actual precipitate. The faster the reaction appears, the faster the mixture gets cloudy. Hydrochloric acid is a solution in water containing hydrogen chloride (HCL). The solution is very corrosive and it is found naturally in gastric acid, which is a digestive liquid produced in the stomach. ...read more.

Middle

At the same time turn on the stopwatch and the magnetic stirrer. To get more accurate results be consistent with the spinning strength of the magnetic stirrer. 9. Stop the stopwatch when the cross is no longer visible and record the time onto the results table. 10. Wash the conical flask with distilled water. 11. Repeat the steps 4-10 three more keeping the same temperature. 12. Find the average of the two results. 13. Repeat 4-11, keep changing the temperature according to the template, see table 2. Results; Calculating moles of different concentrations: Volume of HCL acid (cm3) * Original concentration (M) / Total volume (10 cm3) 1st - 3rd trial --> 10 * 1 / 10 = 1 mole 4th - 6th trial --> 7.5 * 1 / 10 = 0.75 mole 7th - 9th trial --> 5 * 1 / 10 = 0.5 mole 10th - 12th trial --> 2.5 * 1 / 10 = 0.25 mole Concentration Time taken (average) Rate of reaction 1 M 49.8 sec 1 / 0.83 = 1.20 0.75 M 61.8 sec 0.75 / 1.03 = 0.72 0.5 M 66.0 sec 0.5 / 1.1 = 0.45 0.25 M 82.8 sec 0,25/1.38= 0.18 Temperature Time taken (average) Rate of reaction 15 oC 122.5 sec 15 / 2.04 = 7.4 Room Temperature 65.4 sec 22.5 / 1.09 = 20.64 40 oC 49.8 sec 40 / 0.8 = 50 Conclusion; The results do support our hypothesis about the concentration. ...read more.

Conclusion

To avoid contaminating the substances used during the lab, one member of the group had to clean all equipments used, properly and thoroughly. When cleaning, distilled water and normal tap water was used, distilled water was only used on the equipment in a lot of contact with chemicals. If the equipments are not cleaned properly or not cleaned at all there could be some chemicals or residue left on the equipments. Then the substances used during the lab would later be contaminated if dirty equipments are used, this would thereby lead to inaccurate results. By cleaning all equipments used during the investigation the factor of getting inaccurate results due to contamination was cleared. After cleaning the equipments it was made sure that no water was left since this could lead to contamination as the water could interfere with the substances used during the investigation, this was resolved by wiping the water with a peace of cloth. Overall we are pleased with the results and the way the experiment was carried out. The results were fairly accurate because we repeated it three times and then took the average, and the results did prove our hypothesis as well. To make this experiment more interesting we would like to also investigate other factors which affect the rate of a reaction, for example using a catalyst and also to have a bigger/smaller surface area to see how they affect the rate of a reaction as well as getting a fully understandable knowledge of which of the factors does affect the rate of a reaction the most and why. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. Free essay

    Close Your Eyes

    You do realise she's only 16 right mate?" Harry replied turning to me. "Yer, of course I do, but if its gonna work out, age won't matter" I replied. Harry lifted one eyebrow and stared at me. I laughed and then sat down next to Dougie who of course had to crush my happiness.

  2. The aim of the investigation is to examine the kinetics involved in the reactions ...

    This would have given a perfect second order. However, the results obtained did not achieve this. The result obtained in the reaction was 2.246- 2.00 = 0.246. This was due to the temperature fluctuation in the system, which could have been prevented if temperatures were observed more frequently.

  1. Investigating Rates of Reactions

    This increases the number of collisions in a given time and hence the rate of reaction. However many collisions are not successful and the dramatic increase in rate cannot be explained by just the increase in collision frequency. Also, in order for a reaction to take place, the colliding particles have this energy, so there are many unsuccessful collisions.

  2. Experiment to investigate how changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of ...

    These are the five different concentrations that I will use for my experiment: 1M, 1.5M, 2M, 2.5M, 3M The reason why I couldn't use a wider range of concentrations is because we are not allowed to use hydrochloric acid that is above 3M.

  1. Find out how the rate of hydrolysis of an organic halogen compound depends on ...

    A particular effective catalyst is the enzyme catalase. The volume of oxygen is measured in the inverted burette. Figure 6 Let's look at the kind of results, which may arise when investigating how the rate of oxygen formation depends on the concentration of hydrogen peroxide solution.

  2. How the Concentration of a Solution Affects Rates of Reaction.

    Here is a small diagram to show this: (A) (B) Beaker (A) (imagine as being 1 molar) has half as many acid particles in the same volume of water as beaker (B) (imagine as being 2 molar), meaning it is a lower concentration.

  1. Understand factors that affect the rates of chemical reactions - temperature, concentration of reacting ...

    1 Coffee Can with Lid (lid is lined with piece of aluminum pie plate) containing: 1 box of matches 1 vial of lycopodium "dust" powder" 1 pipette - jumbo size 1 tea light candle 1 trash bag 1 waste bottle (for used manganese dioxide solutions, to be returned to VSVS lab)

  2. How Does The Concentration Of Sodium Thiosulfate Affect The Rate Of This Reaction?

    tipping over my hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate solution. A key safety aspect was that we covered the top of the conical flask with cotton wool, making sure no gas escapes the air we breathe into as sulphur dioxide; one of the products formed from the experiment is a toxic gas.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work