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How is ammonia Manufactured?

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Introduction

Science Investigation How is ammonia Manufactured? Ammonia is manufactured by combining nitrogen and hydrogen directly. Nitrogen and hydrogen are compressed to about 250 atmospheres and heated to about 4000� centigrade. They are then passed over an iron catalyst to form ammonia. The reaction is reversible, and unchanged nitrogen and hydrogen are recycled. High pressure favours a good yield of ammonia, so the pressure chosen is the highest that is economically practical. The reaction is exothermic in the forward direction, so high temperature reduces the yield of ammonia in the equilibrium mixture, but increases the rate at which equilibrium is reached. The temperature chosen is a compromise between these two factors. ...read more.

Middle

How is nitric acid manufactured? Nitric acid is manufactured by reacting ammonia with oxygen from the air, in the presence of a platinum catalyst, to form nitrogen oxides that are then absorbed in water. Commercial grade nitric acid is typically 62 per cent w/w. It is a transparent, colourless to yellowish liquid, which readily fumes to produce, a suffocating effect if inhaled. It is a strong oxidising acid, is very corrosive and will dissolve most metals. Most nitric acid is used in making ammonium nitrate but it is also used in the manufacture of organic and inorganic nitrates. Direct applications include photoengraving and metal pickling. ...read more.

Conclusion

2 HNO3 + P2O5 ==> N2O5 + 2 HPO3 Nitric Oxide, NO is prepared be the action of Copper, Cu, or Mercury, Hg, on dilute Nitric Acid, HNO3, and was called Nitrous Air. 3 Cu + 8 HNO3 ==> 3 Cu(NO3)2 + 2 NO + 4 H2O Nitrogen Dioxide, NO2, is a mixed acid anhydride and reacts with water to give a mixture of nitrous and nitric acids. 2 NO2 + H2 ==> HNO2 + HNO3 If the solution is heated the nitrous acid decomposes to give nitric acid and nitric oxide. 3 HNO2 ==> HNO3 + 2 NO + H2O The mixture of gases is cooled and nitrogen monoxide reacts with further oxygen in the air to produce nitrogen dioxide: Nitric acid is used in the manufacture of fertilisers and explosives. ...read more.

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