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How is resistance affected in a wire?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Science Coursework Paul Naylor How is resistance affected in a wire? Plan: In my investigation I will be finding out necessary factors that affect resistance in a wire. To do this I will be looking at different lengths of wire, different thickness and different materials. The three materials we will be using are Copper, Nichrome and Constantin. In the investigation I will take three sets of the same results and at least 6 measurements of wire being resisted. This way I can work out an average and also plot a graph. Circuits: There are two types of circuits, parallel and series; in this instance we will be looking at the latter. Equipment: Voltmeter. Ammeter. Power pack. Crocodile clips. Wire. Different types of wires Length of wire. Thickness. Material. Diagram: Power pack The arrows are showing the way the conventional current goes. The conventional current goes from negative to positive. The actual current goes from positive to negative but when someone came up with the idea of the way current flows, he/she got it wrong. Important Information: Triangle for Resistance: Resistance is measured in Ohms. (?) Current is measured in Amps. (A) Potential difference is measured in Volts. (V) Charge is measured in Coloumbs. ...read more.

Middle

Results: Copper-26 Size (Cm) P.D. (V) Current (A) RESISTANCE (?) 30 0.53 8.70 0.060 30 0.53 8.90 0.059 30 0.52 8.75 0.059 Average 0.059 40 0.66 8.15 0.080 40 0.64 8.13 0.078 40 0.63 8.12 0.077 Average 0.078 50 0.72 7.32 0.098 50 0.60 7.56 0.079 50 0.74 7.48 0.099 Average 0.092 60 0.71 7.01 0.101 60 0.79 7.08 0.111 60 0.76 7.05 0.107 Average 0.106 70 0.78 6.51 0.119 70 0.79 6.26 0.126 70 0.80 6.32 0.127 Average 0.124 80 0.83 6.13 0.135 80 0.87 5.64 0.154 80 0.85 5.58 0.152 Average 0.141 90 0.99 5.27 0.188 90 0.96 5.03 0.190 90 1.00 5.01 0.199 Average 0.192 Nichrome-26 Size (Cm) P.D. (V) Current (A) RESISTANCE (?) 30 1.80 0.85 2.11 30 1.70 0.80 2.12 30 1.70 0.80 2.12 Average 2.12 40 1.85 0.80 2.31 40 1.80 0.70 2.46 40 1.80 0.73 2.47 Average 2.41 50 1.90 0.65 2.92 50 1.90 0.65 2.92 50 1.90 0.66 2.87 Average 2.90 60 2.10 0.45 4.66 60 1.95 0.50 3.90 60 2.00 0.55 3.63 Average 4.06 70 2.10 0.40 5.25 70 2.00 0.40 5.00 70 2.15 0.40 5.37 Average 5.20 80 2.15 0.30 7.16 80 2.10 0.35 6.00 80 2.20 0.30 7.33 Average 6.83 90 2.25 0.25 9.00 90 2.15 0.30 7.16 90 2.30 0.28 8.21 Average 8.12 Constantin-26 Size (Cm) ...read more.

Conclusion

I also found out why it is unsafe to have the voltage higher than 2. This is because the wire burns creating a fire hazard. In the constantin-26, the 3rd voltage and current row is significantly less than the other two, therefore it produces a larger resistance than the other two. This boosts the average resistance up by a substantial amount. This may have happened because the power pack was set on a lower voltage, maybe 1 volt for example. If this is right and the results are incorrect then constantin-26 would have a very low resistance like in 22 and 18. We could improve the reliability of this experiment by simply taking more results e.g. by using say 100cm-150cm of wire, this would add 6 more results to our charts, so it is nearly doubling the current accuracy. We could take larger range of sizes and more different materials. Also if I had enough time I would repeat the constantin experiment again because I think it is incorrect. I think if we did all the experiments on the same day this would improve our results reliability because we may get different equipment which may not work correctly and the temperature will stay the same over one day but over the days we completed the experiment the temperature varied; one day it was raining and the next it was sun shining. ...read more.

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