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How oil is obtained, used and effects our world.

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How are products from oil obtained and used? Oil. What actually is oil? Oil is or was originally made of organic material, like plankton. When the plankton dies it sinks to the sea floor. Over time it becomes part of the many layers of sedimentary rock that form there. Lots and lots of layers build up putting pressure on the lower layers, turning them into petroleum. If there is enough heat and pressure it will turn into crude oil. Crude oil is made up of different carbon-based fractions. These can be extracted using a fractionising column. All these fractions have different boiling points, this means that when heated, certain parts of the crude oil will evaporate and can therefore be collected by condensing it. This means that if you know the certain boiling points of each fraction you can separate the certain fraction you need, which is used for different products. ...read more.


Epoxy Resin (an adhesive) is an example of a thermoset plastic. Example of fuels created from the different fractions includes kerosene or natural gas. Everything has disadvantages and advantages. Oil is no different. Some disadvantages include; it is not renewable, this means that once we have used it up, there will be no more left(that we can create) This means that an alternative will have to be found, but seeing as we are so dependent on oil, this may be a hard switch. But the main disadvantage is the fact that the combustion and use of oil and its derivatives, is that it cause pollution. Pollution damages the environment. The burning of these hydrocarbons releases carbon dioxide, which causes global warming. When it is released into the atmosphere it forms a layer around the earth. As the sun's heat and energy enters the atmosphere it usually bounces of the earth and goes back out into space. ...read more.


( http://www.prospect-magazine.co.uk/article_details.php?id=7156) Another source states that "The latest measurements confirm that the world's oil and natural gas supplies are running out too fast. At some time between 2010 and 2020 the world's supply of oil and gas will fall below the level required to meet international demand." (http://www.theinsider.org/news/article.asp?id=0423) http://www.scienceonline.co.uk/energy/nonrenewable.html Belive that oil will last for another 20 years. If we did run out of oil, I believe, that we would find it very hard to cope because; we would have no way to power out lives, no electricity, no cars, none of anything that we are used. The change from one thing, that has been around for at least 100 years, to something new and different would be very hard. But it is also a good thing because this means the carbon levels in the atmosphere would be able to change back to normal, so ending the threat of a climate catastrophe. From this I hope that I have shown; how oil is formed, what can be obtained from crude oil, advantages and disadvantages of using oil, when oil is possible to run out and the different oil products. ...read more.

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Response to the question

A very well done essay. The candidate lacks a well defined conclusion but merely repeats what they have discussed which would have been better being included in the introduction. The essay shows good depth of scientific research and the consideration ...

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Response to the question

A very well done essay. The candidate lacks a well defined conclusion but merely repeats what they have discussed which would have been better being included in the introduction. The essay shows good depth of scientific research and the consideration of oil as a product.

Level of analysis

The introduction is done well and explains the origins of oil. A diagram would have been well used here to explain the process of how oil is formed in the earth. The process of a fraction column and how to obtain different aspects of oil are also explained well, but the candidate should have really explained it based on separating a certain amount of carbon atoms and how each part is actually separated, such as why paraffin drops out the bottom. The different fractions and there uses are researched well, but again the scientific depth is lacking in certain places. The disadvantages and advantages of using oil are explained well.

Quality of writing

Spelling, grammar and punctuation all fine. Tone and format of the essay good with easy to read paragraphs.

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Reviewed by skatealexia 03/08/2012

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