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# How temperature affects the rate of reaction between Marble and Hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

How temperature affects the rate of reaction between Marble and Hydrochloric acid Introduction This experiment will show how temperature affects the rate of reaction between marble and hydrochloric acid. CaCO3 + 2HCL = The results could be measured in several ways, one would be to time until the limestone has dissolved or the other method would be the measure the amount of air lost every x seconds, I will choose the latter because it is a more accurate way of measuring the rate of reaction. Variable Affect How to control it Size of conical flask The shape might affect how much limestone is under acid or vice versa Use the same sized and shaped flask Concentration of hydrochloric acid There would be more particles of acid in the same amount of liquid so there would be more chance for successful collisions and therefore a higher rate of reaction. Use the same concentration of acid Surface area of marble chunks The bigger the surface area the more the acid has to react with and the faster the fate of reaction is. The surface area is hard to keep under control but we can keep it roughly under control by using roughly the same sized limestone pieces. Amount of hydrochloric acid The more hydrochloric acid there is in a reaction, the more acid there is to collide with the marble and because of this there would be a higher chance of a successful collisions, and the rate of reaction would be higher Use the same amount of acid each time and keep it accurate with a measuring cylinder. ...read more.

Middle

I can use this reaction to test the affect concentration has on reaction rates. Effect of Concentration on Sodium thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid The equation for the reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid is: Sodium thiosulphate + hydrochloric acid sodium chloride + sulphur dioxide + sulphur + water Na2S2O3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + SO2(g) + S(s) + H2O(l) From this I can see that the cloudiness of the water is due to the formation of sulphur. Unlike the other products of this reaction sulphur is a solid, and it is the particles of this solid which are present in the water making it turn cloudy. So in actual fact when measuring this reaction I am measuring the rate of formation of sulphur. Prediction In the main part of my experiment I am going to test how concentration will alter the rate of the reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. I think that if either or both of the solutions is less concentrated the reaction rate will be slower. This is because there are fewer particles in the same volume of the solution, so they will collide less. This means it will take longer for the particles to gain enough energy for a reaction to occur, it will take longer for the particles to overcome the activation energy barrier so there will be fewer reactions. I think that reducing the concentration of sodium thiosulphate will have more effect on the reaction rate than reducing the concentration of hydrochloric acid. ...read more.

Conclusion

This however does not effect the overall analysis of my practical as I alone judged when the cross had disappeared therefore negating the error. In order to obtain results which are of a more accurate nature I could have used a light meter to judge the intentsity of the precipitate formed. I believe that I did get a suitable range of results for this experiment. I recorded results from temperatures that ranged from Room Temperature to 70oC and I think that this is a very good range to see how temperature affects the rate of reaction. However, I feel that this also reduces the chance of knowing if anything changes if the temperature reaches a certain point. Perhaps raising the temperature even higher would have produced a different set of results which may mean that a limit may exist for the rate of the reaction. Some other areas in the experiment that I feel I could have improved on were factors like controlling the stopwatch and measuring the amount of Sodium Thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. There is lots of room for human error here. For example I could have used a burette for measuring the HCL or Thiosulphate rather than using a measuring cylinder. However the inaccuracies due to them were negligible because I paid close attention to these during the experiment. I did outline in my plan that I was going to heat the Sodium Thiosulphate using a water bath, however, this option was not available to me due to the lack of time and resources, I ended up heating the Thiosulphate in a flask sitting on a gauze mat. ...read more.

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