• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9

How the Concentration of a Solution Affects Rates of Reaction.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

An Investigation to Find: How the Concentration of a Solution Affects Rates of Reaction In this investigation I am going to be investigating the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) and Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3). There are several factors that affect rates of reaction, and I could investigate any of these. These factors are: * Surface Area * Concentration * Temperature * Affects from Catalysts Surface Area: The rate of reaction is affected by the surface area of what is being reacted; in this case the surface area of the calcium carbonate. If the particles of calcium carbonate have a greater surface area (i.e. using many small particles rather a large chunk) the reaction time will decrease; and larger particles would take longer to react. This can be explained using the collision theory. For the reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate to occur, the particles in the chemicals must collide with each other. The more the collisions occur, the faster the reaction. An object with greater surface area gives a greater number of exposed particles to collide with others. This diagram (taken from the 'Chemistry For You' textbook) shows this: You can also further demonstrate this by putting numbers to it. Imagine having a 1000cm3 block. Each side of the cube will have an area of 100cm2. The total surface area of the cube would be 6*100 = 600cm2. Now let's imagine that I cut this 1000 cm3 into lots of smaller 1 cm3 blocks. I would need exactly 1000/1 = 1000 of these smaller blocks to give me the same volume as the larger block. All of the 1000 smaller blocks have the same volume as the single larger block; however their collective surface area is far greater. Each side of the smaller blocks would have a surface area of 1cm2, and therefore the total surface area of a single small cube would be 6*1 = 6cm2. ...read more.

Middle

Before I started this investigation, I did some preliminary work to try and find out what concentrations to time the reaction at, what particle sizes were the best to use, and what amounts of calcium carbonate would be the best to use. Here are the results I got: Concentration of Acid Volume of Solution Size of CaCO3 Particles Amount of CaCO3 Time Taken for Reaction (Molar) (ml) (Large Chunk / Fine Powder) (g) (min) 1 15 Chunk 1.5 Unfinished in Time 1 15 Powder Full Spatula 17 0.5 15 Powder Full Spatula Unfinished in Time 0.05 15 Powder Full Spatula Unfinished in Time I first tried using a 1 molar solution (15 ml) with various particle sizes, to see which particle size would be best suited, as I was planning to include 1 molar as one of the values of measuring the rate of reaction at. My results showed me that it would be best for me to use a powder rather than a chunk or calcium carbonate, as the chunk took too long to react, and was unsuitable for my investigation. I then tried the powder at other concentrations, to see the types of times I would get for the reaction. Each of the reactions at other concentrations took too long, so I can therefore conclude that if I am going to use a calcium carbonate power, I need to either use a lower amount of calcium carbonate, or a larger volume of solution, or both together to increase the speed at which the reactions occur. I have decided to double the volume of the solution to 30ml in the investigation, and to reduce the amount of calcium carbonate to 0.1 grams. In this investigation, I will be using the following apparatus: * * Accurate Digital Scales * 12 Boiling Tubes * Calcium Carbonate * 1 molar solution of Hydrochloric Acid * 50ml Measuring Cylinder * Mortar * Pestle * 2 Spatulas * Stopwatch * Test/Boiling Tube Rack * Water. ...read more.

Conclusion

Also, it was extremely difficult to get the particles of calcium carbonate the same size after grinding them, and this probably affected the results. The amount of hydrochloric acid was also probably inaccurate due to human error, and some drips of the liquid could have been left in the measuring cylinder, which would lower the level by a few millilitres. Another difficulty was getting the proportions of water to hydrochloric acid correct, which was once again probably human error. I could not control temperature due to a lack of resources; I had no equipment available that I could use to keep the temperature constant. Due to these difficulties, I would estimate that my results were reasonably accurate, perhaps about 70%, based on how well they fitted with the line of best fit. They are no lower than 50%, as they do show a pattern, and I could draw a curved line from them, however most were not very consistent with each other, and this could affect the averages. There are ways in which I could amend some of these difficulties, if I had the ability to do so. I could try and get the correct amount of calcium carbonate by restricting the amount of movement in the room I was working in, and making sure all windows, doors and similar were closed. I would also have to make sure I directed my breath away from the calcium carbonate, as the light powder could easily be blown away. I would also need to have an accurate way of distributing the powder onto the spatula on the scales. The method I used proved to be fairly inaccurate, and some of the powder was spilled onto the scales, and not onto the spatula. This could not only have affected that weighing, however a build up of powder on the scales could have affected all results. I did try to combat this problem, however, by tearing the weight on the scales before I began adding the powder each time. Andrew Lyons GCSE Chemistry Investigation ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    What affects the rate of a reaction? The reaction I will be investigating is ...

    3 star(s)

    I would need a minimum of 1 gram of CaCO3, therefore I decided to use 1.5 grams of CaCO3 for my main experiment and prelims. Once I found the most suitable weight of CaCO3, I set up my equipment ready for the preliminary.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    In this project I am going to investigate rates of reaction of an indigestion ...

    3 star(s)

    Thermometer This will be used to ensure the temperature is kept correct and constant leading up to the experiment. It measures to half a degree. Tub I will stand the conical flask in a tub full of hot water/ice which will bring the acid to the temperature needed.

  1. Chemistry Cwk Rates of reaction: Investigating One Factor Which Affects How Fast Calcium Carbonate ...

    For my second preliminary experiment I will use 50ml of 2M nitric acid and 5g of calcium carbonate chips and see what the results look like taking readings every 5 seconds. Results for 50ml of 2M acid and 5g of chips: Time (seconds)

  2. Free essay

    Close Your Eyes

    "O really?" I answered walking towards her. "Yaha but I guess I can just go back and watch TV if you want." She turned round and started walking back towards the living room but I grabbed her hand and pulled her towards me. "Nope. You wanted a kiss and a kiss is what your gonna get."

  1. Investigate how concentration of hydrochloric acid (HCL) affects its reaction with calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

    According to the theory, increasing the concentration would increase the rate of concentration. However, during my background information research I found out an important factor. The reaction of calcium carbonate with hydrochloric acid shows that with time the reaction will slow down.

  2. Investigating How the Concentraton of Hydrochloric Acid Affects the Rate of Reaction With Calcium ...

    formed, there is nothing left to react which is where the experiment terminates with nothing left to measure. This is the point where C02 production stops. The increase in the concentration should be roughly proportional to the increase of the reaction rate at a given time not strictly as it is not a straight-line graph.

  1. Investigating the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate

    and across on the lowest point (line b) and drawing until they join and make a triangle I then divided the length. The gradient is how many squares the line goes up for every square it goes across.

  2. An Investigation: Factors That Affect The Rate Of Reaction between Calcium carbonate and Hydrochloric ...

    and gave us better results, we decided to change the hydrochloric acid to 30 ml and have it 2M instead of 1. Table 2. Preliminary of calcium powder and hydrochloric acid Calcium Powder (1g) Hydrochloric acid (30ml) 2m Time Reading Of Gas 10 42 20 47 30 49 40 52

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work