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How The Earth Moves

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Astronomy Project

How The Earth Moves

The Earth spins upon it’s own axis once every 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4 seconds. The Axis is slightly slanted and the Earth rotates in an anti-clockwise manner (if viewed from the north pole). The Earth also orbits the sun on an ellipse shaped path that takes 365.26 Earth days to complete one circuit of. As the Earth moves around the sun the direction that the axis tilts does not change, this means that at certain times in the year, the Northern Hemisphere tilts in towards the sun and at other times tilts away. This is how we have seasons.


The Earth, as with all bodies in the universe is held in orbit by gravity.


Satellites are smaller bodies that orbit around planets, e.g. the moon. Satellites orbit planets using gravity in the same way that planets orbit stars. Satellites are not just natural; many different orbiting satellites surround the Earth and they have been put there by military, scientific and commercial organisations from all over the planet.

Satellites have many uses; they can transmit information around the curves of the earth, monitor conditions on the earth, view the earth in great detail and view space without being effected by the have of the earth’s atmosphere.


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A galaxy is a grouping of millions of stars. There are millions of galaxies in the universe are constantly drifting. Galaxies can be in many different formations from swirls to spherical formations. Most galaxies appear to revolve around a central point; this may be linked with the theory of a black hole at the centre of every galaxy.

Astronomy Project


Ian Burgess

11 1a

Ms Gough

Big Bang Theory

One of the most persistently asked questions has been: How was the universe created? Many once believed that the universe had no beginning or end and was truly infinite. Through the start of the Big Bang theory, however, no longer could the universe be considered infinite. The universe was forced to take on the properties of a finite phenomenon, having both a history and a beginning. 

About 15 billion years ago an incredible explosion started the expansion of the universe. This explosion is known as the Big Bang. At the point of this event all of the matter and energy of space was contained at one point. What existed prior to this event is completely unknown and is a matter of pure guesswork. This incident was not a conventional explosion but rather an event filling all of space with all of the particles of the developing universe rushing away from each other.

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In astronomy, the Doppler effect was originally studied in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Today, the Doppler shift, as it is also known, applies to electromagnetic waves in all portions of the spectrum. Also, because of the inverse relationship between frequency and wavelength, we can describe the Doppler shift in terms of wavelength. Radiation is red shifted when its wavelength increases, and is blue shifted when its wavelength decreases.

Astronomers use Doppler shifts to calculate precisely how fast stars and other astronomical objects move toward or away from Earth. For example the spectral lines emitted by hydrogen gas in distant galaxies is often observed to be considerably red shifted. The spectral line emission, normally found at a wavelength of 21 centimetres on Earth, might be observed at 21.1 centimetres instead. This 0.1-centimeter red shift would indicate that the gas is moving away from Earth at over 1,400 kilometres per second (over 880 miles per second).

Shifts in frequency do not only result from relative motion. Two other phenomena can substantially the frequency of electromagnetic radiation, as observed. One is associated with very strong gravitational fields and is therefore known as Gravitational Red shift. The other, called the Cosmological Red shift, results not from motion through space, but rather from the expansion of space following the Big Bang, the fireball of creation in which most scientists believe the universe was born.


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