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How the increase in clothes on a body prevents heat loss.

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Introduction

Planning Introduction In this experiment I hope to find out how the increase in clothes on a body prevents heat loss. To put this experiment easier to make we shall use test tubes as the body and increase the number of cotton layers around it to represent the clothes. We shall plan a strategic method to calculate the heat loss in each test tube over a certain period of time. We shall observe how fast the body decreases in temperature by recording the temperature every 30 seconds. Safety In this experiment we shall be working with a lot of glass therefore we have to be careful in the presence of test tubes. The thermometers are also very fragile and the mercury may be harmful if released. Fair Test Constants Variables Temperature of water surrounding the body No of layers on the test tube Temperature of body at the start of the experiment Temperature of the body (will be measured) Time that body is left in the h2o How far the body is submerged in the water Volume of water in the body Length of consecutive times to check it To keep the experiment fair, we have to keep everything the same except for the one variable we alter. This will then give us accurate results and help us find out what we intend to without altering the results. Prediction I predict that the more layers the test tube will have around it, the less heat it will lose in a certain period of time. The heat will be lost more slowly. I shall backup my prediction with my scientific knowledge. There are 3 ways in which heat travels: convection, conduction and radiation. Conduction mainly happens in solids where one row of particles are vibrating and then pass on to the next row making them vibrate and so on. Radiation happens when there is a hot object and a darker coloured one next to it that attracts the heat. ...read more.

Middle

I can see this from the graph, to show how it cools quicker at first, then slower. I can see that there is a steep line, which then curves to a much shallower gradient. The non- insulated curve is also lower on the graph than the insulated ones. At the beginning all the lines start fairly close, and then they come apart, going lower according to how much insulation they had (the less, the lower on the graph) and then towards the end the lines become flatter. This tells me that the non- insulated bodies loose heat a lot faster than insulated ones, and that the more insulation a body has, the slower it is to loose heat. This is shown by the fact that bodies with less insulation are lower on the graph, as they loose heat quicker than the higher ones, which have more insulation. It also shows that they all loose heat rapidly at first, and then slow down as they become nearer room temperature until they eventually will stop, the steep gradient at the beginning flattening to an almost flat line at the end and the gradient decreasing as the experiment goes on. The gradient is the speed of which they lose heat. This is clearly shown by one of the curves on the graph produced, with no layers of insulation. The lower lines on the graph lost heat quicker because there was no insulation to stop convection and conduction, which are two main ways that heat is transferred, and in this case more insulation meant that the water in the test tube - the body - would cool slower. The insulation stops convection by keeping the trapped particles, of water and maybe some air, still. So this experiment did backup my prediction. In the tubes with layers on, as I predicted the cold water got trapped in the layers and couldn't get in to cool down the hot water when there was layers around the body. ...read more.

Conclusion

To be more accurate with the results, I could repeat the experiment but take more measurements which could make the pattern even stronger and anomalous. Unreliable results would not affect the conclusion, and be more careful, perhaps getting two or three people to take the same measurement and get the average, or to use a digital thermometer. This would avoid mistakes made as before, with the anomalous result. Also, I could try the investigation using another type of "body", or try using a different type of insulation. I could, for example, use bubble wrap to insulate the test tubes, instead of the gauze. This could be done using exactly the same sea temperature and timings, but it may make the pattern easier to identify, and make a stronger pattern, by making the lines on the graph more apart. I tried to make the results I collected as useful as possible by keeping the test as fair as possible. I believe I achieved this, but there were difficulties in the investigation, where variables we had not much control over changed, like the temperature of the room changing and so on. But these did not affect the investigation so much that valid results were not available. To take my experiment further I would repeat the experiment with a real life person in a pool of some sort where they can control the temperature electronically. Where the humans body's temperature is both measured using machines and the pool's temperature is altered using pumps and water mixers and heaters like in swimming pools at the present time. The experiment would have to be repeated with the same human and the same kind of clothing each time. Technology would help take this experiment further if one felt the need to. Overall, the investigation I did does show that insulation affects the cooling rate of a body in water - that the more insulation there is, the slower it cools. Physics Coursework- Heat Transfer Merna Asaad 10MCO ...read more.

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