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How the structure of cells is related to their function.

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How the structure of cells is related to their function. All living things are made up of cells, whether its plants, humans or even bacteria. There are two different types of cells one is the prokaryotic and the other is the eukaryotic. The name cell was used by an English man who in 1665 use the first microscope and reported seeing what he described looked like the sleeping chambers in the monasteries that were called cells, in a piece of cork.1 The first of the two types is the Prokaryotic cell, the pro meaning before the nucleus as this cell has no true nucleus.2 Prokaryotic cells are surrounded by a cell wall and a cells membrane, and in some ways this makes them similar to a plant cell which is eukaryotic, but they have no nucleus or organelles inside, but they do have flagella's and cilia on the outside. The flagellum is a long whip like tail attached to the end of the prokaryotic cell which helps with its movement. The cilia are small spiked hairs that help to transport fluid in and out of the cell and for protection against harmful substances. They are also found in abundance in the eukaryotic cells in the human trachea where they collect dirt, they either by moving ...read more.


from the body. These specialist cells are circular biconcave (round and flat) in shape (as shown below in fig 2) this gives them a much greater surface area to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs and with body cells. Fig 2 White blood cells (WBC) on the other hand have a true nucleus and contain lysosomes these are found in both plant and animal cells. WBC is the bodies fighting mechanism against infections, it break down bacteria through a process called phagocytosis this is where the white blood cells attack the bacteria invading and draws it into the cell by surrounding it with false arms and then the lysosomes inside the WBC take over.3 Lysosomes are the organelles that chemically digest the bacteria once the white blood cells have engulfed it. They are responsible for the digestion or waste disposal in the cell of things like bacteria and foreign bodies as well as unwanted organelles. Basically they clean up anything unwanted and get rid of it. (As shown in fig 3.) The liver in the animal is one of the hardest working parts of the body. The cells in this area are secreating cells which mean the have to work hard to get rid of alot of toxins and make other substances safe to pass on to other organs either for the body to use or to the kidneys to pass out as urine. ...read more.


in the white blood cell for digestion of waste, SER, the Golgi apparatus and the vesicles in the liver cell to remove waste and secrete, and in the plant cell it is the vacuole and the chloroplast for the energy stores and the photosynthesis. Therefore if each of these cells did not have these organelles in their structure they would not be able to function in the way they are needed to. Referencing 1. Daniel, S. Biology: A self teaching guide 2nd edition (2002) Wiley Publishers. ISBN 978-0471223306 2. Scogna, K. (2004) The Gale Encyclopaedia of science Vol 1 3rd edition. Cells. 3. Toole, G&S. New understanding Biology for advanced level 4th edition. (1999) Nelson Thorne's Ltd Cheltenham UK. ISBN:978-0-7487-3957-8 4. University of Leeds. Medical microbiology- A brief introduction. John Heritage (2004-2006) www.bmb.leeds.ac.uk/mbiology/ug/ugteach/icu8/introduction/bacteria.html#capsules Downloaded 27/11/1. 5. The Florida state university. Molecular expressions. Cell biology and microscopic structure and function of cells and viruses. Michael. W. Davidson (1995-2010) http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/mitochondria/mitochondria.html 6. Beckett, B S. Biology: A modern introduction. G.c.s.e edition (1986) OUP Oxford. ISBN: 978-0199142606 7. Cohen, N. Cell structure function and metabolism (1991) Hodder &Stoughton, London UK ISBN: 9=780340-531884 8. Cox, J. (2011) Horticulture Vol. 108 issue 6. Plants in Candy land. Images Fig1.http://sydneyandrology.com/SydneyAndrology/malerproductivesystem/tabid/682/default.aspx Fig 2.http://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-iv/circulation-animals/components-circulation-system.php Fig 3.http://jaye-jee.blogspot.com/2009/12/phagocytosis.html Fig 4.http://evolutionguide.blogspot.com/2010/12/sharing-knowledge-next-for-target.html ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 Tracy Pearce ...read more.

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The candidate responds very well to the question and this piece is done to an high level. Whilst the candidate could provide greater scientific depth to get greater marks, the range of information used and the way it is presented and easy to read shows a very high level for this qualification. The conclusion is well rounded and adequate.

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The candidate explains the different types of cells and the functions of the different parts to a very high level. The information is displayed well in an essay format and all the information synthesised so that the candidate is not just providing continuous lists of the functions of each cell organelle. The candidate gives examples of specialised cells and explains well how they differ from normal cells hence enabling them to become adapted to their function. The candidate also uses images to help convey the meaning of their text.

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The punctuation, grammar and spelling are all fine. The referencing is presented neatly but the candidate could use a proper referencing technique next time for it to look more professional.

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