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How the temperature affects rate of reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid?

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Introduction

Chemistry Coursework - An Investigation into how surface area effects the rate of the reaction? Aim To investigate how different factors affect the rate of the reaction, with one in specific detail, the temperature, and to see the effects when Marble Chips (CaCO3) and Hydrochloric Acid (HCl). Carbonates react with strong acids to give off CO2 and H2O. Marble is a form of Calcium Carbonate and therefore behaves in the same manner. Word Equation Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric Acid > Calcium Chloride + Carbon Dioxide + Water Balanced Symbol Equation CaCO3 + HCl > CACl2 + CO2 + H2O I will measure the volume (ml�) of CO2 produced by this reaction as a measure of the rate of reaction. Prediction I predict that there will be a positive correlation between the rate of reaction and temperature - as the temperature increases so to does the rate of reaction. For a reaction to occur not only must particles collide, but with sufficient energy so that the original bonds are broken and new bonds can be formed. This is known as bond formation. Scientific Explanation The energy needed to break a mole of bonds is known as Bond Energy. If the collision does not provide enough energy then no reaction takes place. ...read more.

Middle

Apparatus * Graduated Gas syringe - measure volume of CO2 produced * Conical flask - where reaction took place * Thermometer - measure HCL temperature * Pipette - accurately fill measuring cylinder with HCL * Kettle - heat water * Measuring cylinder - measure volume of HCL * HCL (20ml�/trial) - reactant * Marble chips (5g/trial) - reactant * Pen & Paper - record results and analyse experiment overall. * Rubber Bung - to prevent gas escaping into the air * Stopwatch - record time taken to collect 30ml�of CO2 * Electronic scales to 2 decimal places - allows accurate measurements of marble chips Method After setting up the apparatus, ensuring that the gas syringe and conical flask are securely clamped;- * Switch on kettle * Weigh 5g of CaCO3 using electronic scales * Weigh the same amount 2 more times sand place a piece of tissue * Put CaCO3 into conical flask * Measure 20ml�of HCL using measuring cylinder - use pipette for exact measurement and read volume at eye level * Pour hot water from kettle into an empty beaker * Place HCL measuring cylinder into hot water beaker * Wait until HCL is heated to required temperature (no heating needed for 20�c as it is RT) ...read more.

Conclusion

This is due to the fact that it is very difficult to obtain the exact time for every trial, as not everything can be controlled perfectly in a classroom experiment. Furthermore and average was taken. These averages were then plotted on a graph. The line of best comfortably goes through all my points plotted. This backs up the fact that I did not obtain any anomalous results. The experiment could have been improved in many ways. I could have used beads of Limestone instead of chips to solve the problem of unequal sized particles. This may have given me slightly more accurate results. Also I could carry out a greater number of trials for each temperature to make certain that my results were accurate. There are many possible extensions to this experiment. I could try to investigate the effects of using other Carbonates (Sodium Carbonate) and react them with HCL. Furthermore I could use concentration as my variable. If this was considered I would have to take into account other precautions and variables, e.g. what kind of water would be used for concentrating the acid. In addition to this, to make the experiment into a more detailed and depth one, I could've added a catalyst to the experiment. Also instead of using hydrochloric acid I could've used another acid, for example sulphuric acid. I could've then seen the changes of which acid reacts best with limestone (calcium carbonate). Riaz Rampuri 11c2 ...read more.

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