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# How the Temperature of Water Is Affected By the Time It Is Heated.

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Introduction

How the temperature of water is affected by the time it is heated. I am going to investigate the how an amount of a substance is affected by a heater made from glass and copper wire. There are many variables I need to consider. * The voltage and current - the higher the voltage and current running into the heater means that there will be more energy in. This means that there will be more energy out and so the water will get more energy from the heater in a smaller space of time. This means that the water will heat up quicker. The heating is reversed if there is less voltage. * The length of wire and number of coils - The longer the copper wire means that the number of coils around the glass will increase. This means that there will be more resistance and so more energy will be lost into the substance whilst it is passing through the wire. This means that there will be more energy put into the substance and it will heat up faster. * The amount of time - When the heater is in the substance, energy comes from the power pack, through the resister (the heater) and into the substance to be heated. It is this energy that heats up the substance. The longer the heater is left in the water means that more energy can pass through the heater and into the substance and so making it hotter. * The amount of substance to be heated - The more substance to be heated needs more energy to heat it because there are more particles in the substance. ...read more.

Middle

Therefore the longer the heater is 'turned on', the more energy it is receiving from the power pack. The more energy the heater has means that when it is active in the water it gives it more energy and so increasing the temperature. I think that the amount of time and change in heat will be proportional because each time the same amount of energy is going into the heater and so into the water to heat it up. Formulae I will need to use. I will use the following formulae to work out the temperature of my water, the energy out of the heater and the energy put into the water. Energy out of heater Energy = Mass x Specific heat Capacity x ??(change in temperature) From my "Key Science - Physics" textbook, I found that Specific heat capacity is the energy needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of material by 1?C. Specific heat capacity is always a constant and the specific heat capacity for water is 4.2 J / g. This means that 4.2 Joules of energy is needed to raise the water temperature by 1oC. Energy into heater Energy = Voltage x Current (I) x Time in seconds) Using the energy into water formula and the energy from heater formula I can work out how much energy is lost each time and the efficiency of my heater. Temperature of the water By using the above formulae and rearranging them I can predict what the temperature rise will be between each time. ...read more.

Conclusion

If I had more money or resources I could use a data log where it would automatically record the temperature at each required time. I would always start with the same temperature of water to make it easier when working out my temperature changes. Also it will be easier to compare my results. I would also insulate my container and so hopefully reduce heat loss. This would hopefully mean if I drew a graph my results would be closer to a straight line. I would also increase accuracy but doing my experiment more times. This would mean that I have a larger range of results to take an average of and so would mean they would be more accurate and easier to spot anomalous results. I could also investigate more temperatures (e.g. up to 40 minutes) or take the temperature more often. This would mean that I would get a better range of results and so have a better idea of how the water is heated. I could extend the investigation by changing some of the variables I thought of at the beginning of my investigation. For example, I could see how using a longer piece of wire and so putting more coils on my heater affects the overall temperature of the water. I could also try and see what happens if I used more or less water and if then my heater would become more efficient. I could also try using a different substance with a different specific heat capacity and see if that changes the results. I could change energy into the heater and see if it becomes more or less efficient. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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