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How to find the accurate concentration of the Sulphuric Acid.

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Introduction

Plan: How to find the accurate concentration of the Sulphuric Acid. Reaction Sodium Carbonate + Sulphuric Acid Sodium Sulphate + Water + Carbon Dioxide Na2CO3 + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + H2O + CO2 - I have chosen to use Methyl Orange as the indicator for this experiment, this is because Sodium Carbonate Solution is a weak alkali and Sulphuric Acid is a strong acid. Methyl Orange indicator solution works best between a weak alkali and a strong acid, therefore Methyl Orange will work most effectively because it is at its optimum environment between these two solutions. Quantity of Sodium Carbonate to be used Number of moles of Sodium Carbonate = Volume x Concentration Volume in decimetres = Volume / 1000 = 250 /1000 = 0.25 Number of moles = 0.25 x 0.1 = 0.025 Mass of Sodium Carbonate to be used = Number of moles x Molar mass = 0.025 x 106 Mass to be used = 2.65 Apparatus .100cm3 conical flask .25cm3 pipette . Pipette filler . Burette . Methyl Orange indicator solution . Wash bottle filled with distilled water .100cm3 glass beaker x2 .250cm3 volumetric flask .25cm3 Sulphuric acid solution .250cm3 Sodium Carbonate Solution containing 2.65g of anhydrous sodium carbonate Method Making the solution of Sodium Carbonate -Roughly weigh weighing bottle and lid on balance. -Work out new mass and add 2.65g of Sodium Carbonate. -Empty contents into beaker and add 50cm3 of distilled water, stir well until dissolved. -Transfer contents of beaker into volumetric flask using a funnel to avoid spillage. -Rinse beaker with distilled water and transfer to flask. -Top up volumetric flask with distilled water carefully up to the 250cm3 line and then shake solution thoroughly. ...read more.

Middle

Initial weight of bottle and contents = 16.6618 g Weight of bottle and lid alone = 13.9823 g Weight of just contents = Weight of bottle and contents - weight of bottle and lid = 16.6618 - 13.9823 = 2.6795 g Molar mass of Sodium Carbonate = 106 g Therefore: Number of Moles of Sodium Carbonate used = 2.6795 / 106 Number of moles = 0.025278301 Volume of Solution = 250 cm3 (inside volumetric flask) Therefore: Concentration of Sodium Carbonate solution = 0.025278301 / 250 Concentration of Sodium Carbonate solution = 1.011 x 10-4 x 1000 = 0.101 mol dm-3 to 3sf Therefore, concentration of Sodium Carbonate solution = 0.101m Concentration of Sulphuric Acid Number of Moles = volume of acid x concentration / 1000 - Dividing by 1000 converts the units into decimetres. - As stated in the plan, the reaction between the Sodium carbonate solution and the Sulphuric Acid is a one to one relationship ( 1:1 ) meaning that one mole of Sodium Carbonate reacts with one mole of Sulphuric Acid. By calculating the number of moles of the Sodium Carbonate, due to the relationship the number of moles of Sulphuric Acid is therefore the same. Number of moles of Sodium carbonate in 25 cm3 = 0.101 / 1000 x 25 = 2.525 x 10-3 - So therefore the number of moles of Sulphuric Acid in 23.6 cm3 = 2.525 x 10-3 - The average titre = 23.6 cm3 - The average titre in decimetres = 23.6 x 10-3 - Substitute the values worked out into the formula. 2.525 x 10-3 moles = 23.6 x 10-3 x concentration - Rearrange to find concentration of the Sulphuric Acid. ...read more.

Conclusion

By rinsing all of the equipment thoroughly with distilled water after every titration, then the exact quantities required would have been used. This would produce more reliable results due to it being more accurate. If more care was taken during the procedure then the results would have been more reliable. By titrating drop by drop towards the turning point of the experiment, the exact moment of colour change would have been identified. Whilst titrating, rinsing the neck of the conical flask washed all the particles of the acid that were on the side into the reaction, helping to achieve accurate results during the experiment because all intended acid was used. By swirling the conical flask during the titration, the solution was agitated and so all particles were evenly distributed. This helped to make the experiment more accurate. When reading the value from a burette, if a piece of paper is held behind the burette then it stops the light from interfering with the reading off of it. This makes it easier to read exact measurements. The procedures during the experiment that were necessary to ensure that the results were accurate, were, repeating the titration, by rinsing out the conical flask and using fresh amounts of Sodium carbonate solution after every titration. This would have cancelled out the possibility of error if some of the solution remained in the conical flask. By finding maximum and minimum values it shows how reliable the measurements were. This is key in gaining accurate results. These factors were essential in producing results that are accurate and reliable. Methods that would improve the experiment, all increase the accuracy and reliability of the titration if it was done again. ...read more.

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