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Human cloning is most notably one of the most controversial issues in medical science.

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Introduction

Alex Tsan CLONING REPORT INTRODUCTION Human cloning is most notably one of the most controversial issues in medical science. The word "cloning" originates from the Greek language meaning "asexual reproduction." A specific definition of cloning comes from the American Medical Association and defines cloning as "the production of genetically identical organisms via somatic cell nuclear transfer." (Farnsworth, 2000, http://thefarnsworths.com/science/cloning.htm). There are two types of cloning which are therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. Therapeutic cloning enables the creation of embryonic stem cells. The stem cells are genetically identical to the cells of the original donor and can be used to create artificial cells in order to fight diseases (such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease) and the possibility of creating genetically identical organs for human transplants (such as liver and kidney organs). The main goal of therapeutic cloning is to create a healthy replica of a sick person's tissue/organ for transplant. This technique would be incredible as the supply would be unlimited, therefore there would be no waiting lists. The tissue would have the sick person's original DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid - the substance that stores genetic information), which means that there would not be any danger of organ rejection. (Gary, 2003, http://www.clonaid.com/index/html). The main issue of this report is reproductive human cloning, also known as adult DNA cloning. ...read more.

Middle

The bill was terminated in 1997 after Parliament dismantled following the federal election call. Another bill, Bill C-247, was introduced to ban human cloning later that year. That bill was defeated after its second reading in the House of Commons. (Muscati, 2002, 41-42). On May 9th, 2002, the Minister of Health, Anne McLellan, introduced legislation in the House of Commons on assisted human reproduction. This bill was named Bill C-56 and it is now known as Bill C-13 (the Assisted Human Reproduction Act). Bill C-13 is an act respecting assisted human reproductive technologies and related research. The proposed bill would protect the health and safety of Canadians using assisted human reproduction in order to build a family. The bill would also prohibit unacceptable practices including creating a human clones for reproductive and therapeutic purposes; revealing the gender of an embryo; the sale of human embryos; paying a woman to be a surrogate mother; and paying a donor for their sperm or eggs. The bill will also establish the Assisted Human Reproduction Agency of Canada, which will license, monitor, and enforce the act and regulations. (Health Canada, 2002, http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/english/media/releases/2002/2002_34.htm). The bill's first reading in the House of Commons was on October 9th, 2002 and it has not yet been given Royal Assent. If Bill C-13 passes, it would make Canada the newest in a long list of nations to adopt legislation banning human cloning and other certain practices. ...read more.

Conclusion

In addition, if humans were successfully cloned, such persons would have no parents and would therefore be less than fully human in status. Further, scientists simply do not have the wisdom to direct the course of evolution. (Bender, 1998, 13). CONCLUSION The proposed Bill C-13 (the Assisted Human Reproduction Act) would respect assisted human reproductive technologies and related research, protect the health and safety of infertile Canadians using assisted human reproduction, and prohibit unacceptable practices such as cloning and the selling of genetic material. Bill C-13 is acceptable in Canadian society because this act would help Canadian infertile couples use assisted human reproduction with protection and safety, in order to build a family. I think Bill C-13 should be passed because it would prohibit human cloning for reproductive purposes. As shown through past research on cloned animals, especially mice, mishaps, genetic defects and deformities were developed and this would be absolutely devastating in humans. Also, cloned human beings may be treated as second-class citizens because they are more like "experiments" rather then normal human beings. There may also be psychosocial problems on the family and society. Cloning is an excellent advancement in science technology, but it should not be used to reproduce humans. If therapeutic cloning is possible, and if it saves humans (through organ transplants), then it should be allowed. Bill C-13 states that it would prohibit all types of cloning, including therapeutic cloning, therefore it may have to change. Human cloning is definitely a risk, and lives should not be wasted in these experiments. 1 ...read more.

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