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human physiology

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Introduction

Assignment 3 Task One P1. Describe the gross structure and main functions of all major body systems Nervous System: There are 3 main functions for the nervous system which are, collecting information, interpreting it, and then initiating the response. The structure of the nervous system is made up of 2 parts known as the PNS and the CNS. The PNS consists of sensory neurons and motor neurons. The CNS consists of the spinal cord and the brain. * Cerebrum: The cerebrum is made up of two parts known as the cerebral hemispheres. The cerebrum contains the sensory, motor and association areas of the brain. * Peripheral nerves: These nerves carry messages from the sensory receptor towards the Central Nervous System (CNS) and then take the messages away from the CNS towards the effectors. * Spinal cord: The spinal cord has also got two parts to it, known as white matter and grey matter. White matter is the outer part and grey matter which is the inner layer. Endocrine System The main function of the endocrine system is to produce hormones, which are later released into the blood stream. * Pituitary Gland: The pituitary gland produces hormones such as HGH, which controls the growth of our bones and muscles. ADH, which controls the amount of urine, produced. Follicle Stimulating Hormone & Luteinizing Hormone, which control the female monthly cycle. * Hypothalamus: This part of the endocrine system influences some of the hormones within the gland. * Thyroid: This produces thyroxine which therefore controls everyday cellular metabolism. * Adrenal Glands: These produce the hormone adrenaline and also various steroids. * Pancreas: This is the site where insulin and glucagen are produced. * Ovaries: Oestrogen and Progesterone are produced here. * Testes: Testosterone is produced here. Male Reproductive System The main function of the male reproductive system is to enable men to produce and maintain sperm, to discharge sperm and to produce and secret male sex hormones. ...read more.

Middle

* One layer of thick cells Squamous Epithelium * Flat scale-like cells * Can be found in the lining of the body cavities * Found in the skin * There function is to reduce friction Ciliated Epithelium * Can be found in the airways * It is tissue with tiny hairs surrounding the edges Simple compound * This is very similar to skin in its make up. * Can be found all over the body Keratinised compound * This is basically hair molecules * These cover the body throughout * Systems: respiratory system, digestive system and reproductive system Blood * Consists of 4 components: RBC, WBC, Platelets and Plasma * Flows throughout the body Cartilage * Found between all bones in order to prevent them from rubbing * Found mainly in joints, rib cage and face Bone * Many different types of bones * 80% of our body is bone * Bone is found in the Skeletal System Areolar * Type of tissue found in the skin * Surrounds the blood vessels and nerves Striated Muscle * This muscle is found mainly in the face * Connects tissue together Non-Striated Muscle * Found in the bones * No control over these muscles Cardiac muscle * Found in the heart * Function: pump blood through the heart towards the lungs and rest of the body D1. Use examples to explain how body systems interrelate with each other Through this part of the assignment I am going to show how many of the body's systems link in with each other relevantly. I will explain the ways in which different systems link together. The nervous system is linked very closely with the musculo-skeletal system as they both involve the physical activity of the human being. For example, an individual using their muscles for everyday activities, this involves using the nerves for their co-ordination. The endocrine system is connected with both the reproductive systems due to the endocrine system producing the hormones that are released from the reproductive systems during the menstruation cycle. ...read more.

Conclusion

The brain sends messages around the body to all the living cells to show that the individual is carrying out exercise therefore, needs to make allowances for this. The individual carries on exercising but is aware of the change in different factors within the internal environment of the human body. D2. Explain the importance of homeostasis in maintaining the healthy functioning of the body. It is extremely important for an individual to maintain an internal balance in order for all organs to function properly. For example If an individual's temperature was tested on a hot summer's day, you would find that the persons would most likely be sweating which is getting rid of all the body's fluid causing the individual to become dehydrated and need more fluid intake. If an individual's temperature was tested on a cold winter's day, you would find that the person would probably be shivering in order to keep the internal balance at a stable level. This helps the body to keep warm. The reason it is important to have an internal balance is due to the body needing to maintain a balanced temperature. This will save the body from becoming too cold or too hot. Another example would be a diabetic having too much sugar. The brain sends messages around the body telling it that too much sugar is in the blood and that some of it should now be stored as fat content. This is done by releasing more insulin to counteract it. This could cause the individual to maybe go into a coma if too much sugar is present. If the individual didn't have enough sugar, the body reacts differently, the body shuts down, and sometimes can cause an individual to become unconscious and break up fat. Therefore, it is really important that every individual has an internal balance. ?? ?? ?? ?? Kirsty Stevenson Human Physiology Katie Morgan 1 ...read more.

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