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Hydrochloric Acid+Calcium Carbonate Investigation

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Introduction

Aim The aim of this experiment is to find out how different variables affect the rate at which the reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid takes place. There are many variables that affect the rate of this reaction such as the following: 1. Temperature 2. Concentration 3. Surface Area In my investigation I will be testing how changing the concentration of the Hydrochloric acid has an effect on the speed of the reaction. I will do various experiments and then evaluate the results and come to a conclusion. The reaction that will take place is: Hydrochloric Acid+Calcium Carbonate -->Calcium Chloride+Water+Carbon Dioxide Introduction Collision theory - For a reaction to occur, not only must particles collide with one and other but also they must have enough energy so that original bonds are broken and new bonds formed. The energy needed to break a mole of bonds is known as bond energy. ...read more.

Middle

Therefore when the concentration is double the time take for the reaction should be halved. Apparatus The solutions with different concentrations of acid have to be prepared before the reactions can start. The solution has to have a total volume of 20ml. The following solutions should be prepared by mixing water and the acid in a set ratio. When the solutions have been prepared the apparatus has to be set up. The following equipment will be needed for the experiment. Method 1. Put goggles on. 2. Fill water tub with water and stand one measuring cylinder full of water upside down in the tub. 3. Place the unbunged end of delivery tube in the bottom of the upside down measuring cylinder. 4. Pour 20ml of acid solution into a conical flask. 5. Place 5g of Calcium Carbonate into the conical flask with the acid in, put the bunged end of the delivery tube into the neck of the delivery tube and start the stop clock. ...read more.

Conclusion

and Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) Products: Calcium Chloride (CaCl), Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Water (H2O) This gives us the following formula: 2HCl + CaCO3 -----> CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O By looking at the formula we can already see that there is equal numbers of particles in both the Acid ion and the Calcium Carbonate molecule. By reducing the concentration of the acid the ration will be reduced, thus leading to slower reaction times. Evaluation I think the results I collected are sufficient to support a firm conclusion but the reliability of a small amount of the data was in doubt. As you can see in the table of results, in the average column there is one result out of place, 60%. To improve the accuracy of the experiments I would have the Calcium Carbonate chips weighed out more precisely, the acid concentrations mixed more accurately and the timing done more accurately. Theses few changes I feel will make the whole investigation more thorough and help to prove my prediction greater. ...read more.

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