• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Hydrochloric acid

Extracts from this document...


White Cameron Mr. Bolton Physical Science 15 December 2009 Hydrochloric Acid Hydrochloric acid is one of the most acidic natural substances on Earth. Its name, Hydrogen chloride, comes from its chemical formula HCl. It is named this because it is an ionic bond. There is only one of each atom, because Hydrogen has a charge of 1 positive, and Chlorine has a charge of 1 negative. So using the "Criss-Cross Method" we can tell that there is only one of each atom. It is commonly referred to as Hydrochloric acid, or Muriatic acid. ...read more.


The compound Hydrochloric acid has a unique set of physical properties. It is commonly found in its liquid state. It is sold at roughly distributed at 30% concentration, at a mixture of Hydrochloric acid and water. It is colorless to a light yellow. HCl's melting point is at -27.32�C. Its boiling point is at 110�C. Its density is 1.18 g/cm�. It is an extremely corrosive substance with a ph level of -8 pKa. Hydrochloric acid has physical properties like no other compound. Hydrochloric acid is a non-conductive liquid. It is non polar, so is has little to no surface tension. ...read more.


It is used in the production of steel. It is even used in the production of batteries, photoflash bulbs, gelatin, and fireworks. Its also used for leather processing, and the production of vinyl for PVC pipes. It is considered a "workhorse" chemical because it is incredibly useful in a wide variety of ways. With major production starting in the Industrial Revolution, hydrochloric acid is used in the chemical industry as a chemical reagent in the large-scale production of vinyl chloride for PVC plastic, and the pickling of steel. It has many smaller-scale applications, including household cleaning, production of gelatin and other food additives and leather processing. About 20 million metric tons of hydrochloric acid are produced annually. It is essential in the modern, household, and industrial worlds. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

This report has lots of interesting and useful details, however also has lots of mistakes and repeats itself on occasion

Overall this report would be 2*

Marked by teacher Jo Wilcox 15/03/2012

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Organic Chemistry essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    Should food additives be banned

    3 star(s)

    In recent years, additives ranging from emulsifiers to colours to raising and gelling agents have been developed that are essential components of many products, on the shelves of our food store. Benefits and risks of food additives? This is a graph to show some recurrent allergies for people living in UK and how they compare with bad reactions with food.

  2. To Find Out Which Fuel Gives Out the Most Energy.

    Rise in temperature of water (�C) Energy released per gram of fuel (j) 1st 0.85 13 6424 2nd 0.84 12 6000 3rd 0.89 13 5009 4th - - - Average 0.86 12.7 5811 Ethanol Mass of fuel burnt (g) Rise in temperature of water (�C)

  1. The Energy Content Of Different Fuels

    Total energy produced by making bonds: (8 x -743) + (10 x -463) = -5944 + -4630 = -10574 kjmol-1 Therefore the expected enthalpy of combustion for Butanol is: (-10754) + 8569 = -2005 kjmol-1 Pentanol: Pentanol + Oxygen = Carbon dioxide + water C5H11OH + 71/202 = 5CO2 + 6H2O = 2C5H110H + 15O2 = 10CO2 + 12H2O

  2. Methanol - Bond Energy Calculations

    O - H x 16 (464) = 17060kj ?E = 13595 - 17060kj = -3465/2 = -1732.5kj/mol Butanol Bond Energy Calculations: Butanol + Oxygen � Carbon dioxide + Water C4H9 OH + 6O2 � 4CO2 + 5H2O = 1 moles of Butanol Structure of Reactants: 1x 6x H H H

  1. The energy produced of different alcohols.

    and Butanol was 27,000, so propanol should have been in between the two figures as Butonal had 4 carbon atoms and ethanol had 2, where as Propanol has 3 making the results in between the two.

  2. An experiment to investigate the factors that determine the amount of energy released when ...

    Evaluation The evidence I obtained from my investigation was fairly reliable considering the fact that it was carried out in a school laboratory with limited resources. The procedures I used were also fairly adequate but could have been improved. There wasn't much variation in the experiment, as the number of carbon atoms in each alcohol used didn't have any range.

  1. Hydrocarbons As Fuels.

    oxidation products + energy transfer Though different fuels are needed for different purposes the ideal characteristics include the following: - A fuel should react with an oxidiser to release larger amounts of energy. It is interesting to compare fuels on the basis of energy per unit amount of material (mole)

  2. GCSE Chemistry Revision Notes - everything!

    For example, there are 3 types of oxygen atom: Oxygen-16 8p, 8e, 8n Oxygen-17 8p, 8e, 9n Oxygen-18 8p, 8e, 10n These different types of the same element are called isotopes. Isotopes are atoms of the same element containing the same number of protons and electrons but different numbers of neutrons.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work