• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Hydrogen as an alternative fuel

Extracts from this document...


Hydrogen as an alternative fuel: What is Hydrogen? The simplest and lightest fuel is hydrogen gas (H2). Hydrogen is in a gaseous state at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperatures. Hydrogen is being explored for use in combustion engines and fuel cell electric vehicles. On a volumetric basis, the energy density of hydrogen is very low under ambient conditions. This presents greater transportation and storage hurdles than for liquid fuels. Storage systems being developed include compressed hydrogen, liquid hydrogen, and physical or chemical bonding between hydrogen and a storage material (for example, metal hydrides).The ability to create hydrogen from a variety of resources and its clean-burning properties make it a desirable alternative fuel. Hydrogen's physical and chemical properties make it a good candidate for a fuel. At normal atmospheric conditions, hydrogen is a colorless and odorless gas. It is stable and coexists harmlessly with free oxygen until an input of energy drives the exothermic reaction that forms water. Fuel cells also may use hydrogen as a fuel. A fuel cell is an electrochemical engine that converts the chemical energy contained in the hydrogen molecule into electrical energy. ...read more.


The other problem is that hydrogen production depends on the availability of a non-renewable resource, petroleum. Currently, hydrogen is produced from raw petroleum for industrial use, but petroleum supplies may become limited in the near future. Storage Hydrogen may be stored on platforms using a variety of technologies. At room temperature, hydrogen is a gas that can be stored in compressed gas cylinders similar to those used on natural-gas-powered vehicles. Gaseous fuels contain comparatively little energy per unit volume, so platforms using gaseous hydrogen may have a somewhat reduced range compared to platforms using liquid fuels such as gasoline or diesel. Hydrogen also may be stored in liquid form, but it becomes a liquid only at very low temperatures, so special fuel tanks are necessary to keep the hydrogen cold and prevent losses. Liquid hydrogen storage is preferred to compressed gas storage since more hydrogen can be stored in the liquid state than in the gaseous state. Transport Both compressed gaseous hydrogen and liquid hydrogen can be transported by trucks or rail. Liquid hydrogen can be transported in pressurized tanks by truck, rail, barge, or ship. ...read more.


Hydrogen has a higher energy density than petroleum-based fuels. It supplies more energy per unit volume than gasoline, diesel, or kerosene. Hydrogen is extremely abundant. Research and development projects have demonstrated that using compressed hydrogen or liquid hydrogen as a fuel for ICE's, gas turbine engines, or fuel cells is feasible today. Further research is needed to increase the power outputs from the ICE's and gas turbine engines. less energy per volume compared to liquid fuels like gasoline or ethanol. Hydrogen can also be cooled to produce liquid hydrogen, but it is costly. Hydrogen's clean burning characteristics may, one day, make it a popular transportation fuel. For now, the problem of how to store enough hydrogen on a vehicle for a reasonable range, and its high cost, compared to gasoline, are critical barriers to widespread commercial use. Nearly all hydrogen currently is made from natural gas. For that reason, hydrogen usually costs more than natural gas. Hydrogen fuelled vehicles There have only been a small number of prototype hydrogen vehicles made. Most of these have been experimental vehicles made by car manufacturers. Nearly all of these prototype cars were equipped with internal combustion engines, similar to ones that run on gasoline. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Organic Chemistry essays

  1. "Could Sainsbury's add value to their business by using an alternative fuel for their ...

    However, as oil supply is unstable, BP Oil is bound to pass on the rising prices of crude oil to the consumer, increasing the price of diesel and contributing to higher operating costs for Sainsbury's. 3.3 Enviromental and social costs of using diesel Sainsbury's incur private costs from their economic

  2. The Energy Content Of Different Fuels

    of moles = mass Molar mass No. of moles = 1.6 / 60 = 0.026666666 moles of fuel used 4. Energy used & produced to = mass of water X S.H.C X Temp rise heat the water Energy = 25 X 4.2 X 73 = 7665 joules 5.

  1. Fuel cell technology.

    As a result, while the electrons flow through an external circuit, the hydrogen ions flow directly through the proton exchange membrane to the cathode, where they combine with oxygen molecules and the electrons to form water. 4. In this way, hydrogen fuel's natural tendency to oxidize and form water is utilized to produce electricity and useful work.

  2. Biofuels next generation

    * Reducing the effect of global warming. * It also reduces dependence on the other countries for fuels, trade and other transportation costs and gives more jobs to people. * Biodiesel reduces harmful gasses, 100% sulfur, 47% black smoke given out by cars, 78% carbon dioxide and 48% carbon monoxide released into the atmosphere.

  1. Do fuel cell systems offer a feasible alternative to combustion engines in minimizing the ...

    In the end it emphasizes a good perception of it from a technological viewpoint but that an economical assessment would also apply. 2. Introduction. For some major cities of the world, such as Los Angeles, Mexico City and New Delhi, smog and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have reached levels

  2. In this report the effects of fire and explosion are examined based on quantitative ...

    There are many experimental parameters which vary the flame speed. The variation of mixture composition is one such factor which effects the burning velocity. The burning velocity of fuel/air mixtures is maximum for mixtures on the slightly fuel rich side of the stoichiometric.

  1. This is a mini-project on fuel - topics include petrol and fossil fuels.

    (Will come across later on in the project). Mining Mine shafts are dug down to seams (layers) of coal far below the surface. Miners dig a network of tunnels to remove coal from the seams. In addition to coal, many other useful minerals, such as copper, are mined.

  2. GCSE Chemistry Revision Notes - everything!

    the flame is yellow-orange, the metal is Sodium If the flame is orange-red, the metal is Calcium If the flame is pale green, the metal is Barium Hydroxides Because most hydroxides are insoluble (except sodium, potassium and ammonium hydroxides), when you add sodium hydroxide solution to a solution containing metal ions, you will get a precipitate of the metal hydroxide.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work