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Hydrogen Bubbles Investigation.

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Introduction

Chemistry GCSE Coursework Hydrogen Bubbles Investigation Introduction Magnesium and dilute hydrochloric acid are both common chemicals found in school laboratories. When these two chemicals are mixed together a chemical reaction takes place that produces bubbles of hydrogen gas. Magnesium + Dilute Hydrochloric acid = Magnesium chloride + Hydrogen Mg(s) + 2HCL(aq) = MgCl2 + H2 In this investigation I will attempt to change the speed of this reaction by altering a key factor. Plan There are several factors that will affect the speed of the reaction that I will carry out. They are: * The concentration of the hydrochloric acid. * The temperature of the hydrochloric acid. * The surface area of the magnesium. * The adding of a catalyst. From these 4 factors I have chosen to investigate the concentration of the hydrochloric acid. As I have chosen this factor, I must pay careful attention to keeping the other factors constant. In my table below I have shown how I will control the other factors: Factor How I will keep it the same Volume of hydrochloric acid I will use a measuring cylinder to measure 25cm3 Volume of hydrogen collected Always collect using a burette and delivery tube Amount of magnesium ribbon Use a ruler to measure the length Surface area of magnesium ribbon Always ...read more.

Middle

Time (seconds) 1st attempt 2nd attempt 3rd attempt Average 0 0 0 0 0 10 3 2 4 3 20 7 6 7 7 30 11 9 10 10 40 13.5 12 13 13 50 17 16 16 16 60 20 18 18 19 So, my preliminary results tell me that I would attain the best results using and 8cm piece of magnesium. I will be able to vary the concentration to see how the reaction speeds up and slows down. All of my results are displayed on the next page. Each attempt displays the amount of Hydrochloric acid collected in cm3: Results 0.50M Volume of Hydrogen Collected (cm3) Time(s) 1st attempt 2nd attempt 3rd attempt Average 0 0 0 0 0 10 3 2 4 3 20 7 6 7 7 30 11 9 10 10 40 13.5 12 13 13 50 17 16 16 16 60 20 18 18 19 0.75M Volume of Hydrogen Collected (cm3) Time(s) 1st attempt 2nd attempt 3rd attempt Average 0 0 0 0 0 10 9 7 8 8 20 17 15 15 16 30 24 22 23 23 40 30 29 28 29 50 36 37 33 35 60 42 43 41 42 1.00M Volume of Hydrogen Collected (cm3) ...read more.

Conclusion

Why this happened is all down to particle theory, explained above. This proves that higher molar acids have many more particles (H+ ions) that lower acid particles and this is why they react faster. Evaluation I think my experiments went as well as could be expected. I feel that I attained a high degree of accuracy when recording results. My results portray the effect of collision theory well and explain how higher molar acids react faster than lower molar acids. I did not notice any anomalous results but on my graph 1.25M and 1.5M had a considerably larger initial rate that the other concentrations and if I carried this investigation on I would probably look into this further. To improve my results yet further, a gas syringe could be used to collect the gas instead of a measuring cylinder. This would improve the accuracy of my results because less hydrogen can escape from the gas syringe as would in our experiment. During class time, my teacher carried out an experiment analysing how concentration affects the speed of chemical reaction. He used calcium carbonate chips and various concentrations of HCL. The diagram and results are displayed below: Concentration (M) Time taken to fill tube with gas(s) 0.5 909 1.0 258 1.5 30 2.0 20 These results reinforce my results and prove that my collision theory is correct. ...read more.

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