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Hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes.

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Introduction

Hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes. The aim of this experiment is to investigate the rate of hydrolysis of 1-chlorobutane, 1-bromobutane, and 1-iodobutane. Method For this experiment I will need the following apparatus: - - 3 test tubes - aqueous silver nitrate solution - 1-chlorobutane - 1-bromobutane - 1-iodobutane - pipette - Ethanol - Stop clock * For this experiment firstly measure out 2.6cm3 of 1-chlorobutane using a pipette. Then for 1-bromobutane measure out 2.7cm3 and finally measure out 2.8cm3 of 1-iodobutane and put them all in their separate test tubes. - The reason for using a pipette is that this is the most accurate way to measure out exact quantities of the haloalkanes. * Then measure out 4cm3 of Silver nitrate to add to the haloalkanes. ...read more.

Middle

- The reason why ethanol is added is because the halogenoalkanes are immiscible with just silver nitrate, however ethanol makes the solution of silver nitrate and the halogenoalkanes miscible. And doesn't interfere with the reaction in anyway, it is a helping spectator. * Monitor the test tubes under room temperature until a precipitate is seen. In which case a note must be made of the time. - The formation of a precipitate shows the rate of hydrolysis of the haloalkanes. Calculations on how much of each haloalkanes should be used: * 1-chlorobutane H H H H H-C-C-C-C-Cl H H H H Molar mass of CH3CH2CH2CH2Cl is (4*12)+(9*1)+35.5=92.5gmol-1 Density = 0.890 gcm-2 Volume = mass density Volume of 1mole = 92.5 0.890 = 103.9cm3 Volume of ...read more.

Conclusion

4.6gmol-1 Volume of 0.025moles = 4.6 1.62 = 2.8cm3 Observations In this experiment I hope to observe the formation of precipitates in each of the test tubes, to compare the rate of reaction. The halides from the halogenoalkanes will form a silver halide precipitate that will be whitish in colour. In the case of 1-bromobutane this should be what is happening in the test tube: C4H8Br + H2O C4H8OH + H+ (aq) + Br - (aq) The general formula would be: C4H8X + H2O C4H8OH + H+ (aq) + X- (aq) (where X is the halogen atom) At the end of the experiment I should have 3 different times which represent the rate of reaction for each of the haloalkanes I set out to investigate. ...read more.

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