• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Hypothesis - I am going to be examining how much energy is transferred as heat when acids react with alkalis, also known as the heat of neutralisation.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐Fatima Memon Background information In this Investigation I am going to be examining how much energy is transferred as heat when acids react with alkalis, also known as the heat of neutralisation. What are acids? Substances with a pH of less than 7 are acids. The stronger the acid, the lower the pH number. Acids turn blue litmus paper red. They turn universal indicator red if they are strong, and orange or yellow if they are weak. It also produces H+ ions in water. Examples of acids 1. Magnesium chloride 2. Nitric acid 3. Hydrochloric acid 4. Sulphuric acid 5. Potassium carbonate 6. Sulphurous acid 7. Citric acid What are alkalis? An alkali is a base that is soluble in water. ...read more.

Middle

Acid + base ? salt + water The factor that could change my investigation is the concentration of the acid that I use as according to the collision theory, as the concentration of the acid increases so does the rate of reaction due to more successful collisions between the particles and so as a result, this leads to more heat being let off. Another possible factor that could have an effect is the surface area of my reactants. The larger the surface area, the quicker the reaction is as more particles are exposed and so can react. This therefore too can affect the heat of neutralisation. Temperature could also affect the experiment as typically a 10 degrees Celsius rise in temperature can roughly double the rate of many reactions, thus increasing the heat of neutralisation. ...read more.

Conclusion

My hypothesis is going to be to investigate how energy is transferred from the reactants to the product and if any of it is released as heat energy. In this investigation my aim is to examine the temperature in a neutralisation reaction, this will vary depending on the volume of acid and alkali used. Specifically the change from the start temperature of the acid and the alkali to the finish of the neutral solution. The way in which my hypothesis will affect my investigation, is that the more volume of acid there is the, higher the rate of reaction will be; thus the greater change in temperature. By using the collision theory The more collisions that can occur simultaneously, the more the rate of reaction will increase, thus also increasing the rate of the volume of acid. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. The aim of the investigation is to examine the kinetics involved in the reactions ...

    * What effect does agitation have on the activation energy/rate of reaction? Another way of examining the kinetics of acids reacting with metals is to find out what effect agitation has on the activation energy/rate of the reaction. Due to experimental error conducting this experiment practically will produce invalid results.

  2. How feathers effect heat loss in penguins.

    Conduction - this is the main way of heat transfer through the test tube. This is the definition of conduction - The only way of heat loss through opaque solids is by conduction. If something is heated at one end it will spread through the solid by conduction.

  1. Exothermic and endothermic reactions

    Students commonly count atoms rather than bonds. * Remember when answering chemistry questions that with double and triple bonds, the bond energies you will be given are for all the bonds shown. For example, if O = O --> 498 kJ/ mol, then the figure is for both bonds in oxygen.

  2. Experiment Plan. How much energy is transferred as heat when acids react with ...

    However, they will have a pH of anything above 7, up to 14. They also turn the paper blue ? the darker the colour, the stronger the alkali. Like acids, there are some similar properties that are shown across the entire group.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work