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I aim to investigate the affect of temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

GCSE Coursework: Chemistry Planning I aim to investigate the affect of temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid; Sodium thiosulphate + hydrochloric acid � sodium chloride + water + sulphur dioxide + sulphur Na2S2O3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) � 2NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)+ SO2(aq) + S(s) The input variables which might affect the outcome if the investigation are the concentration levels and temperature, whilst only investigating the temperature and keeping the concentration levels the same. The output variables I intend to measure are time (s), and the rate of reaction, 1/time (s-1). I will measure the output variables with a stopwatch, timing to see how long it takes for the solution to turn cloudy. I predict that the higher the temperature, the more quickly reaction will occur. This is because with heat, the particles of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid have more energy and this obviously causes them to move around more. It works like this for all substances, not just those two though. Chemical reactions require collisions, and if particles are moving around more quickly they are obviously more likely to collide. It is just like in a crowded street. If the people are moving quickly it is more likely that they will bump into each other then if they are moving slowly. ...read more.

Middle

Conclusion After analysing my results, I have come to the conclusion that the temperature does affect rate of reaction, and therefore form the theory that the higher the temperature the lower the rate of reaction. I can see this from results table and graphs because the lowest temperature has the highest reaction time. For example, 21�C took 58 seconds whilst the higher temperature, 61�C, has the quickest reaction time of 11 seconds. Like I mentioned, my graph also helped me to see this. At the lower temperatures the line of best fit goes very high, and at the higher temperatures the line of best fit is very low. This is because with more heat, the particles of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid have more energy. This causes them to move around more. Chemical reactions require collisions, and if two sets of particles are moving around quickly there will naturally be more collisions. However, the collisions require the particles to hit each other at a certain velocity, and if this velocity if not reached then the reaction will just not happen. So, at the higher temperatures, more of the particles were travelling at a high enough speed to collide and react. At the lower temperatures it was more difficult for the particles to collide. Only some were able to reach the required speed and react. ...read more.

Conclusion

This would have made it difficult to judge the exact moment that it disappeared, as it would have been gradually changing. I realise that we could have measured wrong in this case. To be fair, it was very difficult to start the stopwatch exactly at the same the sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid were put together. I mean, they would have already started reacting before the stopwatch was started. Another possibility for the anomaly is that there was some other factor affecting the reaction rate. The four factors that affect the rate of a reaction are the surface area of the solid pieces, the concentration of levels, the presence of catalysts and temperature. In our experiment the dependant variable was temperature, and if the concentration of one of the solutions had changed for some reason i.e. some water may have been splashed onto it then the experiment would not be a fair test as a result. To extend the investigation into how temperature affects the rate of reaction, you could perform the experiment in a vacuum, as then there would be no other factors that can affect our results, other than temperature, which is all we to investigate in the first place. I would also like to have the opportunity to user greater temperatures and see how the rate of reaction was affected once the temperature reached its boiling points. I would have done this if I had more time. ...read more.

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