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I am to investigate the factors that affect the rate at which Sodium Thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) reacts with Hydrochloric Acid (HCl).

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Introduction

Sodium Thiosulfate I am to investigate the factors that affect the rate at which Sodium Thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) reacts with Hydrochloric Acid (HCl). When sodium thiosulfate is mixed with hydrochloric acid, a reaction takes place, leading to a precipitate of sulphur being formed. This turns the solution cloudy. I shall use this clouding to investigate a factor that affects the rate of reaction, the factor being temperature. To do this, I shall react Sodium Thiosulfate with Hydrochloric Acid at a range of temperatures, between 20?C and 40?C, at 5?C intervals, leading to 5 results. The experiment shall be carried out twice, to give accuracy, and allowing me to check for agreement between results. I predict that as the temperature that the reaction takes place at increases, the less time it will take for the reaction to take place and for the solution to cloud. My prediction is based on the collision theory, which says that * Reacting species must hit together * Species must hit together with more than the activation energy needed Increasing ...read more.

Middle

A thermometer was used to monitor the Sodium Thiosulfate's temperature, so that the flask could be removed from the water bath when the chemical was at the correct temperature. 5ml of HCl was measured in a different measuring cylinder, and was poured into the Sodium Thiosulfate when this was at the required temperature. The stopwatch was started when the acid had been completely poured in. Then, standing over the flask, which had been placed on top of the cross, I looked down, and stopped the watch when I could no longer see the meeting point of the two lines. This was carried out for each of the five temperatures. When the Sodium Thiosulfate had been heated too much, it was run underneath the cold-water tap to cool down. I chose to use temperatures between 20?C and 40?C, as I felt that if I used higher temperatures, it would prove difficult in moving the hot equipment List of Equipment Bunsen Burner Heatproof Mat Tripod 200ml Beaker 100ml Conical Flask 2 50ml Measuring Cylinders Thermometer Digital ...read more.

Conclusion

The line of best fit is straight, so this shows that the relationship is inversely proportional. The results found can be explained by the collision theory. As the temperature increased, the particles in the liquids gain energy, and vibrate more and further. The particles collide more often due to this, increasing the speed of the reaction. The vibrations carry more energy, so that when a collision takes place, there is more energy involved, meaning that more collisions have the required activation energy, again, increasing the speed of the reaction. My method could have been improved in several ways. The amount of the chemicals used could have been made more exact by using a pipette, which is much more accurate than a measuring cylinder. A better method of timing the time taken for the solution to cloud could have been used, as my reaction times in observing the clouding, registering it, and stopping the stopwatch would have added extra time to the results. My method must have been quite appropriate, however, as the results that came out of it were very good, with agreement between the sets. ...read more.

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