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I will identify the unknown cations from the alkaline earth metals.

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Introduction

I. Title: Group I & Group II Cation Identification II. Purpose: I will identify the unknown cations from the alkaline earth metals. Threw qualitative analysis. III. Hypothesis: I should be able to identify the unknown cations. Variables: Control: Solubility rules & double-displacement reactions based on solubility rules. Dependent: Unknown Ions in the solution Independent: Various chemical environments induced to identify unknown IV. Materials: 1. 1. Chemicals a. 6 M HCl b. 12 M HCl c. 6 M HC2H3O2 d. 1 M K2CrO4 e. 6 M NH3 f. 6 M HNO3 g. 3% H2O2 h. 6 M NaOH i. 1 M NaOH j. 1 M thioacetamide k. 1 M NH4Cl l. 0.5 M NaC2H3O2 m. 0.1 M SnCl2 n. 0.3 g of solid Na2S2O4 (sodium hydrosulfite) o. 0.4 g solid sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) 2. Red & blue litmus paper 3. Tap water 4. Distilled water 5. Dionized water 6. Stirring rods 7. Safety glasses 8. Test tubes 9. Balance 10. Large beaker 11. 50-ml Beaker 12. Boiling water bath 13. Sink 14. 5-mm length of heavy copper wire 15. 1-cm length of 24 gauge of aluminum wire 16. Centrifuge 17. Hot pads 18. ...read more.

Middle

29. Stir well. 30. Centrifuge. 31. Decant. 32. Throw away the liquid. 33. Again, wash the liquid with 3 ml water. 34. Centrifuge. 35. Throw away the wash liquid. Step 3: 1. Add 2 ml 1 M NaOH to the precipitate form Step 2. 2. Heat in the water bath and stir for two minutes. 3. Centrifuge and decant the liquid into a test tube (Label 3) after any SnS2 or Sb2S3 dissolves to leave a dark residue. 4. Wash the precipitate once with 2 ml water and 1 ml 1 M NaOH. 5. Wash the precipitate once with 3 ml water. 6. Stir, centrifuge, and decant, throwing the liquid away each time. Step 4: 1. Add 2 ml 6 M HNO3 to the precipitate from Step 3. 2. Heat in the boiling water bath. 3. Wait for most of the reaction to occur within one minute. 4. Continue heating until no further reaction appears to occur, at least two minutes after the initial changes. 5. Centrifuge and decant the solution, which may contain Cu2+, Bi3+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ into a test tube. 6. Wash the dark residue with 2 ml water. 7. ...read more.

Conclusion

Thus looking back I feel that I could have written a more complex and informative hypothesis. When asked to classify the outcomes and pieces of the experiment as qualitative or quantitative I came up with this. The qualitative aspects of this lab have a wide range. The first would be the colors identification that I needed to used to determine the results of reactions. The qualitative data for this lab would include the amounts of liquids that were needed to conduct this experiment. One way in which this experiment could be improved would be to limit the sources of error that were present throughout the experiment. The first would be to use a bigger sample amount so that the reactions could be better seen. There was also the problem of personal perspective when it came to observing precipitants and colors. This type of experiment continuity is vital in order to derive any factual conclusions about the spectral analysis of different atoms. Next time around some interesting paths to take from this experiment would be to attempt to do the reverse of the experiment, try to make a specified complex compound. The experiment was quite informative of the formation of compounds. It also brought about a realization of how much work and chemistry really goes into the everyday compounds. ...read more.

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