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  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Science
  • Document length: 5165 words

ICT modelling spreadsheet - This coursework was designed to investigate the uses of electricity bills and how electricity bills are produced.

Extracts from this essay...

Introduction

GCSE ICT Modelling Spreadsheet: Write Up Introduction This coursework was designed to investigate the uses of electricity bills and how electricity bills are produced. Firstly we needed to list all of the electrical appliances in our homes and find out how many units of electricity is uses up. These units are measured in kilowatt-hours, meaning how many kilowatts the appliance needs for each hour that it is used. This information was then tabulated into a spreadsheet (as shown on the left). After doing this, we then estimated how long each appliance is going to be used and how many times per week. When the cost of each appliance is calculated, they are all added up to give a total bill. After this, V.A.T. (value added tax) is added on to the price; the V.A.T. is five percent of the cost. Finally, to work out the final bill, the standard charge is added on. The standard charge is a set price from the company, and is the cost of the electricity being supplied to your home. For the supplier 'npower' the standard charge is £21.59, and this is charged annually. However, this cost is just the basic tariff, with no day rates or night rates, and for 'npower' the rate per kilowatt-hour is 6.72p. This rate is used for those who use most of their electrical appliances through the day. This basic rate is the first of two main tariffs. The other tariff is known as economy 7. This is where there are two tariffs, a day rate and a night rate. The day rate is more expensive than the basic rate, at approximately 7.8p per kilowatt-hour. This is the charge between 6am and 11pm. On the other hand, the night rate is much more cheaper, at approximately 2p per kilowatt-hour, and is the charge for each electrical appliance being used between 11pm and 6am.

Middle

and the standard charge added on to it. As you can see from this graph, the biggest decline in costs is the 'What if I renew my kitchen' question. This evidently shows that the electrical appliances in the kitchen take up a huge percentage of the final bill. Also, if we were to subtract the standard charge and the V.A.T., the cost for the 'what if' would be an even smaller cost. Model #2 Design and Layout This second model is designed to show a progression from the first model, and is supposed to show a change in design. The change in design for these sets of spreadsheets is that the tariff has been changed from the basic npower rate, of 6.72p per kilowatt-hour, to what is known as economy 7. This tariff is designed so that you are charged a more expensive rate, of 7.8p, during the day, but then charged a much cheaper rate for the electrical appliances used during the night, of about 2.8p per kilowatt-hour. This information is then put into the spreadsheet, one spreadsheet for the day rate and one for the night rate, and then a third sheet is needed, to add together the two bills, add the standard charge and the V.A.T. The original model is to be changed by duplicating the original model twice, one for the day rate and one for the night rate. We then need to work out how many hours of the day each appliance would be used, and then for the night hours. The time-span for the day rate is from 6am to 11pm, and the time-span for the night rate is from 11pm to 6am. Therefore, if an appliance is used during the day and the night, for example, the refridgerator, the amount of hours it is used for during both time-spans would need to be calculated. On the other hand, some parts of the table will remain the same.

Conclusion

To do this question, you would need to set all time use and the uses per week columns, to zero, as none of these appliances would be owned. However, this must only be done for those appliances in the kitchen, see page for highlights. We then see, through the formulae, the cost of the bill, where we can then work out how much has been saved. To display the important cells of the sheet, shade in the cells which are important, which then attracts the reader to this information. To do this highlight the cells you wish to highlight, then click on the 'fill' icon on the toolbar, then choose your desired colour. Drag the mouse over that colour, click, and the cell will automatically shade itself that colour. To ensure that all column and row headings fit the cell perfectly, both press down ALT+ENTER, and the writing will appear on several lines, but still contained in the one cell, or, double click on the end of the column heading, shown by a letter, and this will fir the cell perfectly, and still on the one line. When writing in a new spreadsheet, to save writing out all the columns, information, and the formulae, simply right click over the sheet names, located at the bottom of the sheet, the click on Move or Copy...Create a copy...(then click on spreadsheet name to where you want the spreadsheet to be situated. To ensure that vital information is not accidentally deleted, I have used what is known as cell protection. The function of this is to stop people typing in the cells with the key formula and headings. To do this, click on Tools...Protection...Protect sheet...O.K.(password is optional). To enter information into the raw data columns, even when the sheet is protected, highlight the cells you wish to remain unlocked, right click over these cells, and then click on Format Cells...Protection...Locked. This will then unlock these cells, enabling them to be changed, even when the spreadsheet is locked. [JMG1]

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