• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12

Identification of an organic unknown.

Extracts from this document...


IDENTIFICATION OF AN ORGANIC UNKNOWN. PLANNING: Aim: To outline a sequence of simple chemical tests that I could use to identify each of the following groups: �an alcohol, �an aldehyde, �a ketone, �a carboxylic acid, �an ester and �a phenol. Introduction: I will be given one of the above organic unknowns and it is my job to investigate which one of them I have via methods of qualitative analysis. Firstly I will need to familiarise myself with each of the groups. Below is a diagram detailing how one group can be transformed into another. Such processes will need to be duly noted when planning the method for the identification of the unknown as we may unintentionally change the chemical structure of the unknown. I must now begin to investigate tests that identify particular groups. These I will have to string together and make into a flow diagram whereby each test is dependant on the result of the previous test. Name (and example) Functional Group Test for the presence of this specific group Alcohol (methanol) Heat and reflux with acidified potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 - orange). Unless alcohol is a tertiary alcohol, solution will form Cr3+ ions - blue - and there will be a colour change. Aldehyde (methanal - formerly 'formaldehyde') Aldehydes and ketones (carbonyls) will turn 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) orange in sulphuric acid and methanol. Adding an aldehyde to a clear solution which contains ions of [Ag(NH3)2]+ in a test tube in warm water will make a shiny silver mirror form. An alternative is to use copper (II) ions in an alkaline solution instead of the silver (I). The solution should turn from blue to red-brown. Ketone (propanone - formerly 'acetone') 2,4-DNPH undergoes a condensation reaction with aldehydes and ketones. Adding a ketone to the above mentioned chemicals ([Ag(NH3)2]+ and complexed Cu2+) would produce no results such as a shiny mirror surface or a colour change from blue to red-brown. ...read more.


and unless the alcohol is a tertiary alcohol, the solution will form Cr3+ ions - blue - and there will be a colour change. Now that I have explained and carefully thought out my flow diagram, I will begin to piece it together, beginning with the addition of sodium to the organic unknown. Method - step by step. Safety: As always, a standard risk assessment sheet will need to be filled out before any experiment can take place. Standard laboratory safety procedures should be observed for all off the methods following: �wear goggles �tie hair back �do not run �do not work on the edge of the work surface �turn Bunsen burner on yellow safety flame when not in immediate use �tuck stools under tables etc. Any safety procedures specific to the method will be mentioned after each method. What makes this experiment much more unsafe is the use of an unknown substance. Therefore extra care will need to be taken. Below is a table of the simplest organic compounds the unknowns can be with their risk and safety phrases. As all compounds in a homologous series behave similarly, I can deduce the risk and safety factors from one of those in the group and apply it to any one of them compounds. Organic unknown Risk phrases Safety phrases Alcohol (methyl alcohol) � Highly flammable � Toxic by inhalation � Toxic in contact with skin � Toxic if swallowed � Keep container tightly closed � Keep away from sources of ignition � Avoid contact with eyes and skin Aldehyde (formaldehyde, 37% solution) � Flammable � Very toxic by inhalation � Very toxic in contact with skin � Very toxic if swallowed � Causes burns � Possible risk of irreversible effects � Risk of serious damage to the eyes � May cause sensitisation by skin contact. � Wear safety glasses � Wear gloves � Keep room well ventilated. ...read more.


If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Flush skin with water" (http://physchem.ox.ac.uk/MSDS/DI/2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine) Test 8: Tollens test Apparatus: �5cm3 Tollens reagent (ammonia solution added drop wise with shaking to silver nitrate) �2-4 drops of the organic unknown �pipette �test tube �water bath 1) prepare 5cm3 of Tollens reagent in a test tube 2) to this drop 2-3 drops of the organic unknown using the pipette 3) if there is no reaction, place test tube in a water bath in warm water 4) observe any physical changes in the appearance of the test tube Safety: Ensure the water in the water bath does not exceed temperatures over 30oC. The test tube must be washed thoroughly after use as if left to stand, can form explosive substances including the detonating material silver azide. A little concentrated nitric acid may be used to clean the test tube after use. Test 9: Add H2NOH to the unknown Apparatus: �5ml H2NOH in solution �5ml 'neutral' iron (III) chloride (10%) �5ml organic unknown �2 measuring cylinders (10ml) 1) add 5ml of H2NOH in solution into a test tube 2) to this, add 5ml of the organic unknown 3) in this mixture, add a few drops of 'neutral' iron (III) chloride 4) notice any colour changes Safety: Be sure to work away from the edge of the work surface. Wear goggles as iron (III) chloride can damage eyes. Test 10: smell the organic unknown Apparatus: �10 ml organic unknown �small conical flask 1) pour out 10ml of the organic unknown into a conical flask 2) whilst swirling the unknown, waft over vapours from the unknown towards your nose using your hands 3) notice any smells encountered Safety: Never directly smell unknown organics. Below is a table for which to record my results onto. I will place a tick for a successful test, a cross for an unsuccessful one and a dash of the test need not be completed. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. Why do penguins huddle to keep warm?

    The results show that the solitary test tube stayed warmer for less time than all of the test tubes in the huddle. This proves that penguins in the huddle will stay warmer for longer than the single penguin. Looking at the results, it also shows that penguins closer to the

  2. Electronic spectroscopy - Homoleptic chromium(III) complexes and the spectrochemical series.

    simply states that the crystal field effects of each ligand type are purely additive and hence that the crystal field environment around the metal centre is an average of these effects. It can be expressed mathematically as ? (MXaYb) = a/a+b ?

  1. To identify an organic unknown using basic cohesive chemical tests to discover the functional ...

    CO2 released with sodium hydrogen carbonate. This shows that the compound is a carboxylic acid. Accuracy, Reliability and Risk Factors: Accuracy and reliability relies on the correct selection of reagents and correct interpretation of the observations.

  2. identifying an unknown compound

    remains Bromine water is decolourised from brown to colourless Phenol will form a white ppt with bromine water, but a colourless solution depicts presence of Alkenes.Alkenes present and confirmed. Label test tube as Alkenes. 12 Hydroxamic acid test for Identifying esters In a test tube, mix 1 drop of unknown

  1. Analysing; Enthalpy of Decomposition of Sodium Hydrogencarbonate

    Average results = (result 1 + result 2)/2 = (26.5 + 27.9)/2 = 27.2 kJ/mol Thus, we use the value of 27.2 kJ/mol as the value of enthalpy of neutralisation of Sodium Hydrogencarbonate. Calculations of enthalpy of decomposition We can calculate the value of enthalpy of decomposition using the Hess's

  2. How much Iron (II) in 100 grams of Spinach Oleracea?

    Transfer the contents of the beaker through a small funnel into a 100cm3 volumetric flask. d. Rinse the beaker and glass rod twice using small quantities of Sulphuric Acid (aq) and transfer all the washings through the funnel to the volumetric flask.

  1. Organic compound identification.

    2. After adding PCl5 to the boiling tube and warming it there was a sudden reaction and a gas was given off. The test tube got a layer of burned black substance on its outside. Testing the gas with the stopper from the concentrated ammonia bottle gave white fumes.

  2. Precipitation of Salts & Identification of Unknown Solutions

    White, powdered precipitates Ag+ Misty solution -No precipitate Clear solution -No precipitate Clear solution -No precipitate Cloudy solution -Cream precipitates floating around the tube Fe3+ Clear solution -No precipitate Clear solution -No precipitate Clear, light yellow solution -No precipitate Dark orange/brown precipitates around the tube Mg2+ Clear solution -No precipitate

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work