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Impact of Enzymes in Society

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Introduction

Eni Ballauri 9A January 31, 2007 Biology What is the impact of enzyme's use in human society 'Enzymes are special kinds of proteins that are found in all living matter. Living cells need enzymes to live and grow. Enzymes are catalysts, substances which speed up chemical reactions present in very small amounts without being changed in the reaction' [1] .It was firstly named enzyme by a German physiologist, Wilhelm K�hne in 1878. This term comes from Greek ????�?? "in leaven" to describe the process. This word was later used to refer to nonliving substances, such as pepsin [2]. Enzymes are used for medical reasons [3], to treat a variety of illnesses, as well as to make various drinks and things to eat [4]. Enzymes can be found in everywhere, in the food we eat, such as cheese, yoghurt; in different drinks, such as wine [4]; in laundry detergents, and also in our body. The use of enzymes has begun years ago, since 1874, when the Danish chemist, Christian Hansen, made the first preparation of relatively high purity used for industrial purposes [5]. ...read more.

Middle

A further use of enzymes is in the brewing industry. For example, betaglucosidase enzymes are used to improve the filtration quality in brewing industry; amyloglucosidase enzymes are used to lower the calories of beer; protease enzymes are used to remove cloudiness produced during storage of beers [2]. An additional use of them is in fruit juices and also in dairy industry. Rennin enzymes are used to hydrolyse protein; microbially produced enzyme has increased its use in dairy industry; lactases enzyme breaks down lactose to glucose and galactose [2]. Also, in starch industry, amylase, amyloglucosidease and glucoamylase enzymes are used to convert starch into glucose and various syrups. In meat tenderizers, papain enzyme is used to soften meat for cooking [2]. In biological detergents, different types of enzymes, such as primarily proteases, amylases, lipases and cellulases are used to help removing protein strains, resistant starch residues, fatty or oily strains, and also used in biological fabric conditioners [2]. Protease enzymes are necessary to remove proteins on contact lens to prevent possible infections as well as to dissolve gelatine off scrap film, in photographic industry [2]. ...read more.

Conclusion

Enzymes are still being used in many different industries in many facilities. They are very useful, since they can work in low temperatures, but they are very specific in their function as well. They have an optimum temperature and if the temperature gets too high, they denature. As a conclusion, I would say that enzymes play a great role in our lives. They are very useful, but they can also cause problems if used improperly. (1017 words) Reference: > Enzyme Technical Association- Biotechnology, Enzymes, Allergies Publisher: E.T.Association, 2002 http://www.enzymetechnicalassoc.org/biotechnology.html Date accessed: January 27th, 2007 > Wikipedia- Enzyme Publisher: Wikipedia, free encyclopedia, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enzyme Date accessed: January 27th, 2007 > Enzymes- European Medicinal Uses http://www.enzymes.com/european_medicinal_uses_of_enzymes.html Date accessed: January 27th, 2007 > Enzymes in industry http://www.crocodile-clips/absorb/AC4/sample/LR1507.html Date accessed: January 27th, 2007 > Maps Group- History of Enzymes Publisher: Maps Group http://www.mapenzymes.com/History_of_enzymes.asp Date accessed: January 27th, 2007 > Science in the Box- What are Enzymes and Why do We Use Them in Laundry Detergents Publisher: Procter and Gamble http://www.scienceinthebox.com/en_UK/safety/whatareenzymes_en_print.html Date accessed: January 27th, 2007 > Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine- Key Function of System Enzyme Found Publisher: Science Daily, 2006 (story adapted from news) http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/09/060925064105 Date accessed: January 27th, 2007 > Jones Mary and Geoff - Biology Cambridge University, United Kingdom, 2002 Publisher: (c) Cambridge University Press 2002 Date accessed: January 27th, 2007 ...read more.

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Response to the question

This is an extensive and well written response to the question set, with the content appearing to be well researched and laid out.

Level of analysis

The analytical skills are very good, with the student going into great detail on the different uses of enzymes, talking about many different uses not just one area, such as food, this proves that the student has researched a wide variety areas in which enzymes are used. The language used is scientifically acceptable for this level and maybe even beyond. The evidence given for the positive use of enzymes is apparent. There seems to be a lack of negatives about the use of enzymes, in any situation where you are asked to talk about the use of something you should point out the negatives as well as the positives even if you later go on to discredit what they say, as this shows the examiner that you have considered every argument before you go on to make your conclusions.

Quality of writing

The fact that the student has used endnotes to show where the information was sourced form is a skill that I have only just learnt at As level, and would not have know to had used at that level. There are no obvious spelling or grammatical mistakes showing that the student has reviewed the work before handing it in.


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