• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

In this essay I will look at the physical properties of four different solids and explain why they act the way they do in terms of bonding and structure.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Structure of Solids We all know that different substances act in different ways. The properties a substance displays depends on their structure and the different types of bonding they have. In this essay I will look at the physical properties of four different solids and explain why they act the way they do in terms of bonding and structure. Sodium Chloride Sodium Chloride is formed by strong electrostatic attractions between the sodium and chloride ions. Because the ions are small they are closer together meaning the electrostatic forces are stronger than usual. This is why Sodium Chloride has a high melting and boiling point as it takes a lot of heat energy to break the bonds. Solid Sodium Chloride is not a conductor of electricity. This is because there are no free electrons which are able to move around. However molten sodium chloride undergoes electrolysis, which involves conduction of electricity because of the movement of the ions. ...read more.

Middle

This is why Sodium is a conductor of electricity whereas Sodium Chloride cannot as there are no free electrons. Metals have high melting and boiling points because of how strong the metallic bonds are. The strength of the bond is different for different metals and depends on the number of delocalised electrons between them and on how the atoms are structured. For example Group 1 metals such as Sodium have quite low melting and boiling points because each atom can only offer one outer electron to become delocalised and for the metallic bond. Furthermore Group 1 atoms are relatively large atoms meaning that their nucleus is further away from the delocalised electron meaning the electrostatic attraction isn't as great. Also Group 1 elements are not structured efficiently ( they have 8 co-ordinate bonds compared to 12 in most metals) this means that they are not able to form as many bonds meaning the heat energy doesn't have to break as many bonds. ...read more.

Conclusion

The electrons form temporary dipoles as they move throughout the layers. These dipoles cause opposite dipoles in the sheets above and below and carry on through the rest of the structure. The carbon atoms are arranged in a trigonal planar structure. This causes the layers to form regular hexagons. The distance between carbon atoms within a layer is less than the distance between layers. Between the layers are weak van der Waal's forces this means that the layer structure is easy to break, which is why Graphite is used in pencils as it is easy to sharpen and marks the paper like lead. Graphite has a high melting point and boiling point as the covalent bonds have to be broken throughout the structure as breaking the bonds between layers is not enough. The delocalised electrons within the layers mean that electricity can flow through Graphite. If a piece of graphite is attached into a circuit electrons can "fall off" on end of the sheet and be replaced with new ones at the other end. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Classifying Materials section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Classifying Materials essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Identifying an Ionic Compound. Objectives: To learn and test for metal ions ...

    5 star(s)

    The first table shows the tests for non-metal ions, and we can see that my substance reacted negatively with AgNO3 and 0.1 mol/dm3 of HCL, but positively with HCL and BaCl2, meaning that my substance contained SO42- as a nonmetal ion.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Chemistry revision notes. Atomic Structure and Bonding, Electrolysis, Acids and Alkalis.

    5 star(s)

    are made up of positive metal ions (e.g. Na+ ) and negative non-metal ions (e.g. Cl-). The ions are arranged in a regular lattice so positive and negative ions are arranged alternately in 3 dimensions. 1) They have high melting and boiling points. 2) They are hard but brittle (shatter easily)

  1. The Structure of the Atom.

    Therefore the average mass of all chlorine is : Average mass = (37 x 25/100) + (35 x 75/100) = 35.5 The number 35.5 is the relative atomic mass of chlorine. Relative Atomic Mass : The average relative mass of the atoms of an element, taking into account natural abundance

  2. Our experiment consisted of two samples of water containing unknown substances, and our objective ...

    got to do the experiment at least once more to see whether sample A really didn't produce a lather at our benchmark after using a whole burette's worth of soap solution and a bit more. The results were qualitative, so even if we were able to do the experiment again,

  1. Classify and identify different polymers to determine their physical properties and uses.

    A foamed form of polystyrene is used to make heat resistant coffee cups, grocery store meat trays, and building insulation. To minimize fumes in the laboratory, this procedure uses a styrene casting resin. Unexpanded polystyrene is commonly used in thermal insulation systems (wall, roof and sub-floor), ceiling panels and other decorative surfaces, pipe insulation, protective packaging, flotation and buoyancy applications.

  2. GCSE Chemistry - Sodium Thiosulphate

    The stopwatch will now be started. When the mixture has turned sufficiently cloudy so that the letter X can no longer be seen the stopwatch will be stopped and the time will be recorded. The experiment is repeated with all the concentrations.

  1. Rate of reaction of different concentrations of sodium thiosulphate.

    * In the experiment the same reason applies for the concentration of the hydrochloric acid. If the correct amount has not been applied for instance to much of the hydrochloric acid then obviously an increase of molecules will occur subsequently the rate of reaction will increase.

  2. To conjecture the structure and bonding of eight unknown solids by analysis of experimentally ...

    with glass rod * Observe all significant changes *NOTE: retain all beakers containing solutions (i.e. only for those that were soluble) for use in conductivity testing (Section B) SAFETY1: * Avoid emptying contents of beakers containing solids into sink * DO NOT pour mixture of substance E into sink *

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work