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In this exercise, it was required to observe carefully what happened when certain substances were heated in a burner, and to note the appearance of the residue after heating.

Free essay example:

BrandonJoseph 4B

Date: 5th March 2012

Title: The effects of heating different substances

Introduction: In this exercise, it was required to observe carefully what happened when certain substances were heated in a burner, and to note the appearance of the residue after heating.

Aim: To observe the effects of substances when heated.

Apparatus: test tube

Blue and Red litmus paper

Tongs

Bunsen burner

Spatula

Distilled water

Glowing splint

Lead(II) nitrate

Copper (II) sulphate

Ammonium chloride

Zinc sulphate

Cupric carbonate

Method: A spatula was used to place 1g ofZinc sulphate into a test tube. Distilled water was used to dampen the red and blue litmus paper. Using the flame of the Bunsen burner the splint was lit and then blown out leaving a glowing splint. The tongs was used to hold the test tube over the lit Bunsen burner and the blue and red litmus paper was held at the opening of the test tube. The glowing splint was then placed inside test tube. Observations relating to the red and blue litmus and the glowing splint were then recorded. This was repeated for the other substances.

Results:  

Substance Heated

Observation made

Effect of gases evolved on

Blue litmus

Red litmus

Glowing splint

Lead(II) nitrate

Changed from white to orange, bubbled before turning to a gas

Yes

No

Yes

Copper (II) sulphate

Changed from blue to white, water droplets formed

Yes

No

No

Ammonium chloride

Powder hardened, gave off a pungent smell, no colour change

Yes

No

No

Zinc sulphate

Bubbled while heating,no colour change

Yes

No

No

Cupric carbonate

Changed from green to black, crystals floated upon heating, water droplets formed

Yes

No

No

Discussion: The solids that changed colour when heated are cupric carbonate, copper(II) sulphate and lead(II) nitrate. The solids that evolved water vapor upon heating were cupric carbonate and copper(II) sulphate, this was proven by the formation of water droplets. The solid that underwent sublimation is ammonium chloride. Sublimation is the process by which a solid transforms directly to a gas. The only solid that gave off oxygen while heating was the lead(II) nitrate this was proven when the glowing splint relit when it was placed inside the test tube. The solids that gave off and acidic gas upon heating was Zinc sulphate, ammonium chloride, lead(II) nitrate, copper (II) sulphate and cupric carbonate.

Sorce of error: The blue litmus paper turned red when it was set down on the table so more litmus paper had to be moistened before continuing.

Conclusion: After heating substances these were formed -

Lead(II) nitrate2Pb(No3)2(s) +heat2PbO(s) + 4NO2(g) + O2(g)

Copper (II) sulphateCuSO4.5H2O+heatCuSO4+5H2O

Ammonium chlorideNH4Cl (g)+heatNH3 (g) + HCl (g)

Zinc sulphate 2ZnSO4 + heat 2ZnO + 2SO2 + O2

Cupric carbonateCuCO3+ heatCuO + CO2

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