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In this Investigation, I am going to investigate the effects of concentration on the rates of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Introduction: In this Investigation, I am going to investigate the effects of concentration on the rates of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid. There are four factors that affect the rate of reaction, temperature, concentration, surface area and catalyst. For any reaction to occur the reactants must collide hard enough to break the bonds in the reactants, new bonds are also formed when the reactants collide with each other successfully, and the new bonds that are formed make new products. If the temperature is increased then the reaction will speed up because the heat makes the particles move faster, this makes the average kinetic (movement) energy of the particles to increase. The kinetic (movement) energy of the particles increase and become greater then the activation energy. The particles collide with each other so hard that it causes bonds to break and new ones are formed. In the same volume, there are fourteen particles, the slower they move, the lower the temperature and the faster they move, the harder they collide. ...read more.

Middle

Therefore, collisions will take place more often between particles of the crushed solids and the particles of the liquid reactants, this results to more successful collisions that lead to the reaction being faster. A catalyst speeds up the rate of reaction of a chemical reaction, because the catalyst provides another way for the reaction to take place with a lower activation energy. Therefore there will be more successful collisions at any temperature because more of the molecules will have energy greater than the activation energy. Aim: to determine if the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the speed of the reaction of calcium carbonate with hydrochloric acid. Word equation for this reaction: Calcium carbonate + Hydrochloric acid --> Calcium Chloride + Water + Carbon Dioxide CaC03(s) + 2HCl(aq) --> CaCl2(aq) + H20(l) + C02(g) Reactants Products Preliminary method: The method I used to track the rate of reaction was by using the "Evolution of gas" method, I chose this method because the results were easier to take down and I had the right equipment for this method. ...read more.

Conclusion

* The mass of Calcium Carbonate Analysis & Conclusion: My results show that as the concentration increased, the volume of which carbon dioxide was produced increased rapidly. When the Concentration was 0.5M, at 50 seconds, 15cm3 of volume was produced, whereas when the Concentration was 1.0M, at 50 seconds it was 55cm3, and when the Concentration was 1.5M, at 50 seconds it was 75cm3. When the concentration was 2.0M, at 50 seconds the volume of carbon dioxide produced decreased, at 50 seconds, the volume was 53cm3. The results went as I expected except at 2.0M when the volume of carbon dioxide produced decreased when I expected it to increase. Evaluation: I think that the anomalous results may have arisen by inaccuracies. Calcium Carbonate was not measured out to the exact amount need or not enough acid. Also, the conical might have been shaken during the experiment which has an effect on the reading. Time intervals were to long, for example 60 seconds interval. Rinsing out the Conical flask properly after each experiment is vital as chemicals from the previous experiment may have an effect on the reading/result of the experiment. ...read more.

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