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In this investigation I will be burning alcohols to heat up a beaker of water. I will be burning five alcohols, methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol and pentanol. The aim is to find out how much energy is produced when burning these alcohols.

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Introduction

Planning In this investigation I will be burning alcohols to heat up a beaker of water. I will be burning five alcohols, methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol and pentanol. The aim is to find out how much energy is produced when burning these alcohols. 'An alcohol is a series of organic homologous compounds, with the general formula Cn H n + 1OH�. Alcohols react with oxygen in the air to form water and carbon dioxide. The reaction that is involved in burning alcohols is exothermic because heat is given out. Form this reason the reactant energy is higher than that of the product. The energy is given out when forming the bonds between the new water and carbon dioxide molecules. The amount of energy produced by such exothermic reactions can be calculated by using the formula Mass of the substance x rise in temp x SHC( specific heat capacity). The specific heat capacity is the number of joules required to heat one gram of water by 1�C. I chose to use water because it is safe, easily found, and has a reliable specific heat capacity of 4.2. The bond that are formed in an exothermic reaction can be of two types. ...read more.

Middle

� Energy evolved � Energy per gram � Energy per mole First of all I will calculate the amount of energy evolved. I will achieve this by using this simple formula... This coursework from www.essaybank.co.uk (http://www.essaybank.co.uk/free_coursework/928.html) Reproduction or retransmission in whole or in part expressly prohibited Energy evolved = Mass x Rise in temperature x SHC Energy evolved = 100g x 50�C x 4.2 As you can see all of the alcohols will have the same amount energy evolved because all the numbers that are filled in the formula remain constant for each alcohol and the same numbers are applied for each individual alcohol. Below is a table showing the amount of energy evolved in each case... Type of alcohol Energy evolved in (j) Energy evolved in (kj) wwgf gfw esgfgfs aygf gfba ngf kcgf gfuk: Methanol 21 000 21 Ethanol 21 000 21 Propanol 21 000 21 Butanol 21 000 21 Pentanol 21 000 21 To find out how much energy is produced per gram we use the formula... Energy per gram of fuel = Energy evolved x Mass of fuel burnt Energy per gram of fuel = 21kj x ? ...read more.

Conclusion

Next time reducing heat lost would be my main priority. Improving insulation techniques would be a valuable asset in obtaining the most reliable data I could. wYCA7 from wYCA7 essay wYCA7 bank wYCA7 co wYCA7 uk Another error is that of incomplete combustion. Complete combustion occurs if there are lots of oxygen atoms available when the fuel burns, then you get carbon dioxide (carbons atoms bond with two oxygen atoms). wwbf bfw esbfbfs aybf bfba nbf kcbf bfuk: If there is a limited supply of oxygen then you get carbon monoxide (each carbon atom can only bond with one oxygen atom). This is when incomplete combustion has occurred. This is so because the carbon monoxide could react some more to make carbon dioxide. If the oxygen supply is very limited then you get some atoms of carbon released before they can bond with any oxygen atoms. This is what we call soot. Since heat is given out when bonds form, less energy is given out by incomplete combustion. So this is why it affects the outcome of the experiment. To overcome this problem, I would have to make sure a sufficient supply of oxygen was involved in the reaction. ...read more.

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