• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

In this investigation, two different shores with different levels of exposure were surveyed. Based upon this survey, the level of exposure for each shore was determined using Ballantines exposure scale.

Extracts from this document...


Introduction: Seashores can vary greatly in nature from one another. One of the factors that is most responsible for this diversity is the level of exposure to which the shore and the organisms that make it their home are subjected. In this investigation, two different shores with different levels of exposure were surveyed. Based upon this survey, the level of exposure for each shore was determined using Ballantines exposure scale. This scale uses the presence, absence and level of abundance of particular organisms to rate the level of exposure of the shore ranging from very exposed to very sheltered. Additionally, the shores were compared and important differences were noted. This comparison indicates which organisms prefer more exposed environments and which prefer more sheltered ones. In addition to the general survey, two specific projects were undertaken to more closely examine a particular aspect of the shores life. The first project, carried out at the more sheltered site (coordinates 22, 10 on the provided map), examined the length of brown algae and its relation to the age of the algae. Two species of brown algae were measured in this examination, Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum. The presence of Polysiphonia lanosa on the Ascophyllum was also noted. ...read more.


Top shells, particularly Gibbula umbilicalis, and Littorina neritoides were abundant on the exposed shore but were not present on the sheltered shore. Also on the exposed shore Mytilus edulis , the mussels, and Paracentrotus lividus, the purple sea urchins, were abundant, and Actinea equina, the red sea anemones, were occasional while none of these species were found on the sheltered shore site. This being said however, there were similarities between the sites as well, for example neither site had more than a few individuals of Laminaria species or the other kelps other than Himanthalia elongata. Also Littorina saxatilis was absent on both shores and both shores had many Balanus species barnicles and Patella species limpets. Ballantine's exposure scale was then applied to both shores. Based on the presence and absence of the particluar species used by Ballantine to classify the shores, the more sheltered site can be classified as a fairly sheltered shore, although within this classification it leans toward the more sheltered side. This is because it did exhibit some characteristics of a sheltered shore even though in the end more characteristics pointed to the fairly sheltered classification. Using the same technique, the more exposed site can be classified as an exposed shore but like above it leans within this category, this time toward the very exposed side. ...read more.


No strong correlation was found for either the Patella species limpets (R = 0.405) or the Actinea equina (0.313). This is not wholey unexpected however, as the zone measured layed entirely in the eulittoral zone and the habitats in the different quadrants were therefore quite similar. Next the average, max, min and median number each species per 0.25 square meter was calculated (table 2). These results show, at least in this zone of the shore, that the Patella species is more common than the Actinea equina although, as in the first project, the sample size is again small. Table 2 Avg number per 0.25 square meter Max number per 0.25 square meter Min number per 0.25 square meter Median number per 0.25 square meter Patella species 76 144 27 81 Actinea equina 28 144 2 11 Conclusions: This investigation clearly shows how different shores are due to different levels of exposure. The first shore was classified as a fairly sheltered shore according to Ballantines exposure scale while the second was classified as an exposed shore. It was clearly visible in examining which organisms were present at each site that some organisms prefer the more sheltered type of shore while others prefer a more exposed environment. Additionally, some organisms were present in high numbers at both sites and therefore probablly don't care about the level of exposure as much as the organisms present at only one site or the other. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Living Things in their Environment section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Living Things in their Environment essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Research question - Is using dogs for work ethical?

    5 star(s)

    First, the ball heading towards them is an unconditioned stimulus, now it is a conditioned stimulus. The next time a ball is thrown at them they relate it to the screaming and being hit by it- which was once a neutral stimulus and now a conditioned stimulus.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Find out the relationship between the districution of bladders and the degree of exposure ...

    4 star(s)

    The image above shows the dominant brown seaweed groups on the shore. The greener seaweeds growth beneath these and near the high water mark, the seaweed that we are focusing on is called bladderwrack, this is show on the image above, and is positioned about middle shore, this means that

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An Investigation into a Woodlice's Preferred Choice of Environment.

    3 star(s)

    As I was doing this I made sure that the first time I conducted it that the entire black half of the lid was placed over the dry section of the choice chamber.

  2. The comparison of bacterial content in a range of milks.

    c, and the mixtures are poured immediately into sterile culture dishes. After the agar has hardened, each cell is fixed in place and forms an individual colony. The total number of colonies equals the number of viable microorganisms in the dilute sample.

  1. Branded Bleach is more effective at killing E. coli than Non branded bleach - ...

    Wash the work surface down using virkron spray and paper towels 3) Label six Petri dishes with initials, date, and the name of the bacteria, E.coli. 4) Set up and light a Bunsen burner 5) Measure out 10cm� of bleach-water solutions using graduated pipettes and 100 cm� beakers.

  2. Investigating adaptation, competition and zonation of barnacles, Chthamalus stellatus (Poli) and Balanus balanoides (Linneas) ...

    A specific quadrat was used, which was a lot smaller than the standard ones, which would have been too big to grasp any type of percentage. I used a fixed measuring tape to replicate a transect along the beach. This apparatus was specific to my investigation, as they directly enhanced the speed and ease of my investigation.

  1. Rocky Shore Study

    water mark 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 Rough Periwinkle 4 10 2 6 11 3 2 Flat Periwinkle 4 2 4 3 6 4 Limpet 8 22 4 10 12 9 22 4 5 10 5 10

  2. An investigation into whether varying light intensity at a stream affects the species diversity

    crashing as there is nowhere for the prey to hide so the predators have an advantage, consume the prey and then have a poor numbers of prey to feed on so starve or emigrate. Many factors affect population density, which results in the population density constantly varying.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work