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In this investigation we are going to measure the rate of reaction of marble and HCl when the concentration or surface area of marble is changed.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Chemistry Coursework-Investigation on the rate of reaction between HCl (Hydrochloric acid) and Marble (Calcium Carbonate - CaCO3) Aim: In this investigation we are going to measure the rate of reaction of marble and HCl when the concentration or surface area of marble is changed. Introduction: A rate of reaction is the speed at which reactants become an end product. For a reaction to happen, the particles that are reacting have to collide. If they collide, with enough energy and pressure, then they will react. There are several factors that affect the rate of reaction. Firstly temperature will affect the rate of reaction; if the temperature is cold the particles will move more slowly, with less energy resulting in a slower reaction. However in a hot temperature the particles move more quickly, they collide more with more energy, creating a faster rate of reaction. Secondly concentration will affect it, the lower the concentration the more spread out the particles, so they will collide less and create a slower rate of reaction. Thirdly using a catalyst can be used to speed up a reaction, without it being changed. The factor that we will be investigating is the size and surface area, large particles have a small surface area so there are less particles exposed for collision, which means a slower reaction. However small particles have larger surface area and have faster rates of reaction. Controlling the rate of reaction is important because you have to get it exactly right, or you won't have the desired end product. Preliminary Investigation In our preliminary investigation we measured the rate of reaction between small marble and 1M of HCl, medium marble and 1M HCl, small marble and 2M HCl. We measured the reaction for 300 seconds and wrote down on the table how far it was at every 20 seconds. This experiment was done to give us an idea on our prediction for our main experiment as well as giving us the chance to have a trial at the experiment, to make sure we were using the equipment correctly, to reduce human error. ...read more.

Middle

The four different concentrations are 0.25M, 0.5M, 1M and 2M. After looking at our preliminary results we decided to use a range of different concentrations so that we could get a better picture of the rate of reaction throughout different molars of HCL. Health and Safety From the lab's hazard card we have gathered that throughout the experiment eye protection must be worn as hydrochloric acid is a highly corrosive and toxic chemical that can be very dangerous if it gets into your eyes or on your skin. Also there must be no eating or drinking in the lab at any time, and all bags and coats must but underneath desks to prevent people tripping over and potentially causing accidents involving harmful chemicals such as Hydrochloric acid. Prediction By referring to our preliminary results I can predict that the higher the concentration of acid the faster the rate of reaction. I think this because of the collision theory which states that particles with more surface area in relation to their volume have more particles available for collisions, and the more collisions there are the faster the rate of reaction. Results Results for 0.25M: Medium Marble (CaCO3) 0.25M HCl Volume of CO2 /cm� Time (s) Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Average Range 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 3 3 3 3 3 3 40 3 3 3 3 3 3 60 3 3 3 3 3 3 80 3 3 3 3 3 3 100 3 3 3 3 3 3 120 3 3 3 4 3 3-4 140 3 3 3 4 3 3-4 160 3 4 3 4 4 3-4 180 3 4 3 4 4 3-4 200 3 5 4 4 4 3-5 220 4 6 4 4 5 4-6 240 4 6 4 4 5 4-6 260 4 6 4 4 5 4-6 280 5 6 4 4 5 4-6 300 5 6 5 4 5 4-6 320 5 6 5 5 5 5-6 340 ...read more.

Conclusion

In order to achieve results that were as accurate as possible we used the gas syringe. The range bars on my graphs all followed a similar pattern;they started of small got bigger and then were small again. I think that from the range bars my results are fairly accurate, however some of the the range bars are a little too big for the results to be really accurate, if I were to repeat this experiment I would make sure that my data was as accurate as possible. One weakness in our data was the sometimes large range of values that made the results less accurate,another weakness was the outlier results. We had two results that were significantly different to the other sets of results, this was down to faulty marble and increased surface area of the marble, in future we would go back and redo these results so that we could have a more accurate result and could have used then in the average and range. I think that repeating the experiment four times was a good idea, however to achieve optimum accuracy it should have been repeated at least six times. Also during our preliminary results we saw that the reaction had not finnished after 300 seconds, therefore we decided to time ours for 600 seconds, this gave the reaction a longer time to end. If we had done the investigation again we woul have made sure that we recorded values for over 600 seconds, made sure that the temperature is the same every time, made sure that all equiptmen is working correctly and also made sure that the surface area of the marble chips reamins the same throught out to ensure accrate reaults. In conculsion I think that my results are not reliable, this is because the range of reauts are too varied. Although my results did follow the expected pattern (as the concentration of acid increases, the rate of reaction increases) the gradients did not follow the patttern the were meant to, this was because the results were too varied and not consise enough. Therefore the results cannot be reliable. ...read more.

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3 star(s)

This piece of work is of a high standard. However it is limited to three stars by the unreliable data. Improvements are suggested throughout.

Marked by teacher Cornelia Bruce 17/04/2013

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