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# In this project I will investigate factors that effect resistance. But to first understand resistance one must understand electricity.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Factors affecting the resistance of a metallic conductor

In this project I will investigate factors that effect resistance. But to first understand resistance one must understand electricity.

Electricity is an important part of our daily life. It is electricity that has given us the world today. Just think if we didn’t have electricity then we wouldn’t have lights or fans or air-conditioners or even watches. We have become so dependent on electricity that we could not bear to live with out it. It has almost taken over our life, yet we don’t know what electricity really is. It is the flow of electrons. All materials are made of tiny atoms. The atoms contain smaller particles, electrons, protons and neutrons. Electrons have a negative charge and protons have a positive charge, the neutrons have no charge. The protons and neutrons are in the centre of the atom and do not move. The electrons which are around the atom do move and when two objects are rubbed together one object gains electrons and the other object loses electrons. So this flow of electrons is electricity. Some materials allow electrons to flow through them and others don’t. A material which allows electrons to flow through is called a conductor. A material which doesn’t allow electrons to flow through is called an insulator. Most metals are very good conductors of electricity. Plastic is a good insulator it doesn’t allow electricity to flow through it easily. This is because the electrons in the atoms in a metal are so loosely held that they freely move to other atoms, electrons in the atoms of plastic are more closely held together and so are not so free to move around.

Middle

0.1

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.2

0.01

0.01

0.01

20.00

0.3

0.01

0.02

0.015

20.00

0.4

0.02

0.02

0.02

20.00

0.5

0.02

0.02

0.02

25.00

0.6

0.03

0.03

0.03

20.00

0.7

0.03

0.03

0.03

23.33

0.8

0.04

0.04

0.04

20.00

0.9

0.05

0.05

0.05

18.00

1.0

0.05

0.05

0.05

20.00

Average Resistance

20.70

Length: 250cm     Material: Nichrome     Thickness: 0.40mm

 VoltmeterReading (V) Ammeter ReadingI (Amps) (Increasing) AmmeterReadingI (Amps) (Decreasing) AverageAmmeterReading(Amps) Resistance(R=V/I) 0.1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.3 0.01 0.01 0.01 30.00 0.4 0.02 0.02 0.02 20.00 0.5 0.02 0.03 0.025 20.00 0.6 0.03 0.02 0.025 24.00 0.7 0.03 0.03 0.03 23.33 0.8 0.03 0.03 0.03 26.67 0.9 0.03 0.03 0.03 30.00 1.0 0.03 0.04 0.035 28.6 Average Resistance 25.32

Thickness

Length: 50cm     Material: Nichrome     Thickness: 0.40mm

 VoltmeterReading (V) Ammeter ReadingI (Amps) (Increasing) AmmeterReadingI (Amps) (Decreasing) AverageAmmeterReading(Amps) Resistance(R=V/I) 0.1 0.02 0.02 0.02 5.00 0.2 0.04 0.04 0.04 5.00 0.3 0.06 0.06 0.06 5.00 0.4 0.08 0.08 0.08 5.00 0.5 0.10 0.10 0.10 5.00 0.6 0.12 0.12 0.12 5.00 0.7 0.14 0.14 0.14 5.00 0.8 0.16 0.16 0.16 5.00 0.9 0.18 0.18 0.18 5.00 1.0 0.20 0.20 0.20 5.00 Average Resistance 5.00

Length: 50cm     Material: Nichrome     Thickness: 0.56mm

 VoltmeterReading (V) Ammeter ReadingI (Amps) (Increasing) AmmeterReadingI (Amps) (Decreasing) AverageAmmeterReading(Amps) Resistance(R=V/I) 0.1 0.04 0.04 0.04 2.50 0.2 0.09 0.09 0.09 2.22 0.3 0.14 0.14 0.14 2.14 0.4 0.18 0.18 0.18 2.22 0.5 0.23 0.23 0.23 2.17 0.6 0.28 0.28 0.28 2.14 0.7 0.33 0.33 0.33 2.12 0.8 0.37 0.37 0.37 2.16 0.9 0.42 0.42 0.42 2.14 1.0 0.47 0.47 0.47 2.13 Average Resistance 2.20

Length: 50cm     Material: Nichrome     Thickness: 0.71mm

 VoltmeterReading (V) Ammeter ReadingI (Amps) (Increasing) AmmeterReadingI (Amps) (Decreasing) AverageAmmeterReading(Amps) Resistance(R=V/I) 0.1 0.06 0.06 0.06 1.67 0.2 0.14 0.14 0.14 1.43 0.3 0.21 0.21 0.21 1.43 0.4 0.28 0.28 0.28 1.43 0.5 0.35 0.35 0.35 1.43 0.6 0.43 0.43 0.43 1.40 0.7 0.50 0.50 0.50 1.40 0.8 0.57 0.57 0.57 1.40 0.9 0.64 0.64 0.64 1.41 1.0 0.72 0.72 0.72 1.39 Average Resistance 1.44

Length: 50cm     Material: Nichrome     Thickness: 0.91mm

 VoltmeterReading (V) Ammeter ReadingI (Amps) (Increasing) AmmeterReadingI (Amps) (Decreasing) AverageAmmeterReading(Amps) Resistance(R=V/I) 0.1 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.83 0.2 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.83 0.3 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.83 0.4 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.83 0.5 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.83 0.6 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.83 0.7 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.82 0.8 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.82 0.9 1.09 1.09 1.09 0.83 1.0 1.21 1.21 1.21 0.83 Average Resistance 0.83

Series Connection

Two wires connected in series

Length: (20cm + 30cm)     Material: Nichrome     Thickness: 0.40mm

Conclusion

To improve the experiment I could chose to investigate with a wider range of voltages. So that I would get various readings which I could compare easily. Also I could chose to investigate with a wider range of types of wires so to get a better idea of factors effecting resistance. For example I could investigate wires made of different material like copper. I would also investigate the resistance for more lengths and thicknesses. Also at different temperatures.

In the future I intend to do an extended investigation on the resistance in a filament lamp. In a filament lamp, as the voltage increase, temperature also increases. An increase in the temperature will lead to an increase in the resistance. That is why near the end the graph starts to get flatter because resistance is increasing.

I can implement what I have learnt from the investigation into real life. I have found out that thicker the wire lower the resistance and longer the wire higher the resistance. This can be used in a filament lamp. As for a filament lamp to work the wire inside it needs to be at a high temperature. To attain this high temperature we need to attain a high resistance. With the information that I have found out I can say that for the wire to attain a high resistance it should be long and thin, and as we see in filament lamps, the wire is thin and coiled up so to give a higher resistance.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Electricity and Magnetism section.

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