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In this research report I will be investigation the changing views throughout history about other past, present, further in the universe.

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Physics course work

In this research report I will be investigation the changing views throughout history about other past, present, further in the universe.

Though out human existence, mankind has searched for answers to where they belong and what role they play in the universe. One of the first great thinker to tackle this problem was the Greek philosopher   Plato, (427 -347 BC)

“Man - a being in search of meaning.” plato

"I have hardly ever known a mathematician who was capable of reasoning." “Plato, THE REPUBLIC”

Plato’s ideas and way of thinking where though allegory and poetry, he had little interest in the facts and figures of empirical science, "I have hardly ever known a mathematician who was capable of reasoning." “Plato, THE REPUBLIC”.  Plato used his logic, which was greatly influenced by Socrates of hoem Plato  was a scoller   to the nature of the celestial bodies he placed a static earth, which possessed a 'world soul' according to plato , in the centre of creation, with all other bodies moving around it, the moon, planets and sun, all moving in perfectly circular   orbits at uniform speeds. The earth was placed in the centre of creation for 2 main  reasons, the first it fitted in to the ideology of the time that the human race was why the universe was created in the first place, so having it in the centre of creation seamed a sensible idea. The second reason was a logical one.

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Copernicus  . He concluded that the only way to 'save the phenomena' of perfect circles and uniform speeds was to place the Sun at the centre of the solar system and let the planets revolve around it, as Aristarchus had suggested. Since Copernicus assumed that the orbits of the planets are circular his scheme still needed epicycles to make it work, but the simulation was precise. For the first time, tables of planetary motion could be calculated from heliocentric principles. Furthermore, these tables proved more accurate than those based on the Ptolemaic system.

to support the helilcentric solar system  Copernicus  took a series of observations other his life. in 1515 Copernicus started to odserve the sun’s path, he descivered that the diurnal point of the Sun’s course has move by over 30 degrees since the odservations taken in Plato’s era. This gave him an indercation that the solar system was not static. DIAGRAM EXP MATHS LOT S

At this stage observations where by eye, using a verity of positioning techniques EEEEEEEEEE

After many years of reluctance on Copernicus part,  In 1542 De Revolutionibus was printed, he dedication it to the Pope Paul III, he included the first picture of a sun centred solar system with the moon going around the earth on in turn the earth rotating around the sun.

Copernicus didn’t realise that the planets didn’t take a perfectly spherical orbit, but he work was a revolution for the time.

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Newtons 1st law: A body at rest remains at rest, or a body in uniform motion remains in uniform motion, unless acted upon by an external force

Newtons 2nd law: The acceleration of an object is proportional to the force acting on an object. The constant of proportionality is the mass:

F=ma (a=dv/dt)

Newton’s 3rd Law When any two objects interact, the force exerted by the first object on the second is equal and opposite to the force exerted by the second on the first. Or, for every action (force), there is an equal and opposite reaction; that is forces are mutual and act in pairs.

From these 3 laws it is possible to draw up a law for the interaction of 2 bodies,

Newton’s Law of Gravity

Each body has a mass, this mass creates a force, though the interaction particals now known as gravitons, the more massive a body is the more gravations created so the strounger the force it creates.

If one body is orbiting another  in a circle then its centrail petail and centafugal force must be equal,

This can then be worked out to be F = GMm/r2

It is r2 because, as the area round a sphere increases  it increase by the radios squared.

 From Newton’s first law it is clear that there is a conseation of momentum

Momentum  = mV = constant

Kepler’s second law states that there is conservation of angular momentum:
mVr = constant

Kepler’s 3rd law and Gravity


F = GMm/r2

F= ma

a= v2/r

a= f/m= GMm/r2m = GM/r2

so v2= GM/r

as v = distance /time = circumference /period for orbit

v = 2пr/p

v2 = 4п2r2/p2

GM/r =  4п2r2/p2

p2= ( 4п2 /GM) r3

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