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Indigestion Tablets Investigation

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Plan Variables 1. Temperature of water 2. Amount of time between measurements 3. Volume of acid 4. Type of acid 5. Concentration of acid 6. Mass of indigestion tablet 7. Number of indigestion tablets 8. Size/shape of indigestion tablet 9. Type of indigestion tablet 10. Agitation given to boiling tube Apparatus 100cm3 measuring cylinder boiling tubes 25cm3 measuring cylinder Indigestion tablets 250cm3 beaker delivery tube 1M hydrochloric acid stand Stop clock thermometer Electric kettle trough Diagram Method The apparatus will be set up as shown in the diagram above. Then I intend to- 1. measure the starting temperature of water. 2. add the indigestion tablet to the boiling tube. 3. measure the volume of gas produced every 15 seconds until the reaction finishes (I will know that it has finished because there will be no more bubbles evolved or when I get 3 consecutive readings that are the same). 4. repeat the experiment with 6 different temperatures of water, following steps 1-4. To ensure a fair test To ensure a fair test I will keep all the variables the same apart from the one I am testing. This variable is temperature. I am finding out if the temperature of a reaction affects the rate of the reaction. Amount of time between measurements I will measure the volume of gas produced every 15 seconds for 8 minutes or until the tablet has been used up and the reaction (bubbles) have stopped. The taking of the measurements will not affect the reaction because I will not have to move any of the equipment to take readings. The importance of this comes when I am analysing the evidence. I will be able to more accurately compare the results of the different experiments if the measurements are taken in the same way. This means that when I am comparing rates of reactions the results will be more reliable. ...read more.

Middle

This means the reactants are used up more quickly in a hotter experiment so the same amounts of products are formed but at a greater rate. At low temperatures the time taken for the experiment should be significantly different to the time taken at higher temperatures. Bibliography All quotes are taken from The Usborne Illustrated Dictionary of Science by C. Stockley, C. Oxlade and J. Wertheim. Pages 169, 179 and 216. Obtaining Evidence 1 2 3 2 5 6 7 24 24 72 71 0 0 0 0 4 4 31 7 9 10 46 30 16 18 57 30 23 25 62 31 30 32 65 33 35 38 65 34 40 41 65 34 45 43 47 43 48 43 49 50 51 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 57 58 58 58 Volume of gas produced (cm3) Start Temp (0C) 24 35 43 55 65 72 Time 0:00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0:15 4 21 11 20 22 31 0:30 9 30 25 35 41 46 0:45 16 40 36 42 50 57 1:00 23 45 39 47 56 62 1:15 30 47 43 50 59 65 1:30 35 49 45 53 62 65 1:45 40 50 47 55 63 65 2:00 45 51 49 57 63 2:15 47 52 50 58 63 2:30 48 53 52 60 2:45 49 53 53 61 3:00 50 53 54 62 3:15 51 55 62 3:30 52 56 62 3:45 53 56 4:00 53 57 4:15 54 58 4:30 55 58 4:45 56 58 5:00 57 5:15 57 5:30 58 5:45 58 6:00 58 1 2 3 4 22 24 55 55 0 0 0 0 1 4 17 20 6 9 34 35 11 16 41 42 18 23 45 47 24 30 50 50 29 35 52 53 34 40 55 55 39 45 57 57 43 47 59 58 46 48 60 60 49 49 61 61 51 50 62 62 53 51 63 62 54 52 63 ...read more.

Conclusion

Another way of extending the investigation would be to test whether the shape of the tablet made any effect on the speed of the reaction. For example a 'Polo' shaped tablet would have a greater surface area than a traditional tablet shape. There were some anomalous results other than the "anomalous results" table. I have not included the 35oC line in points 1 and 3 of my Analysing Evidence section because I feel that this is an anomalous result. This is because it produced noticeably less than any of the other results and lasted less time than two of the experiments which started at higher temperatures. This graph only fits the shape pattern, producing a good curve. Because of the good curve I do not believe that this anomaly came from faulty apparatus. Instead the acid could have been, for some reason, weaker than the other experiments and so was completely used up in the experiment. This would explain why the reaction started at an acceptable rate then tailed off prematurely. There are no specific points that seem anomalous. All the points either closely fit the curved line of best fit or, as in the case of the graph lines on graph 2, between them form the curve of best fit. To improve this experiment and make my results more accurate I could use a thermostatically regulated water bath which keeps the water and so the acid at the same temperature. This would ensure that throughout the experiment the temperature would remain constant. In my experiments the temperature of the acid in the very hot water was much lower than at the start but the room temperature acid, because the reaction is exothermic, was hotter at the end of the experiment. Regulating the temperature of the acid would improve the reliability of my results. The reaction between the indigestion tablet and acid is exothermic which means keeping the experiment at the same temperature is more difficult especially at room temperature. Keeping the reaction as close as possible to the starting temperature is important because it will improve the reliability of my results. ...read more.

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