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Insulation properties, scientific theory heat can be transferred in three ways, either through conduction, convection or radiation.

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Insulation Properties Scientific Theory Heat can be transferred in three ways, either through conduction, convection or radiation. Convection is when warm water or gas rises and as a result is expanded. As it is expanded it is less dense than the cold water or gas. The cooler water or gas is therefore denser now and so falls to the bottom and is heated; the same process is reciprocated as described above. Objects are always taking in and giving out radiation. The amount of radiation given out depends on the temperature and the surface area. A dull black surface loses energy more quickly and is therefore said to be a good radiator. In comparison to this a bright shiny surface is a poor radiator. A dull black surface is a good absorber of radiation, which means it takes in and gives out radiation quite easily. The exact opposite to this is a poor absorber of radiation i.e. a bright shiny surface. This is because they reflect the infra-red rays, (rays, which cause the most heating). ...read more.


From the above I predict that in my experiment the best insulator would be carpet, then glass wool and then maybe wool or cotton. I predicted the above as these materials contain large amounts of trapped air, which help in making them good insulators. Fair Test To make this experiment fair, I will make sure the water, which is placed in the tub, is the same amount with the same temperature. I will also use the same tub throughout the experiment. I will wash the tub with cold water after each experiment and also immerse the thermometer in a beaker of cold water to gain accurate results the next time. Safety Procedure In this experiment to wear a laboratory coat is not really necessary, because you do not come into direct contact with acids or alkalis, but it would be better to wear one. Gloves should also be worn. Also to reduce risks I decided to use a kettle to heat the water in, instead of a bunsen burner. This would make it easier for me and will not be time consuming too. ...read more.


This is because there was a hole in the lid, which may have affected my results as heat could have escaped from there. Also, I feel I should have used the same amount of each material, by weighing them, and then leaving each for the same amount of time, this would make my results more accurate. If I were to do the experiment again I would also test on some conductors too, to compare the results. I would also keep the thermometer immersed in the water all the way through so I can see how the temperature drops. The final temperature for knitting wool remained the same as the temperature at 480 seconds. I feel this was because I had used the same beaker of cold water throughout the experiment to cool the thermometer down and so the beaker of cold water may have become hot by the time I carried out the last experiment. I could improve my results by experimenting on different types of each material, for example different carpets as I feel that the results would be different on each carpet, as their insulation properties would be different and so I would get a better average to compare against. ...read more.

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