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Investigate a neutralisation reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide.

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Introduction

Aim: To investigate a neutralisation reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. To investigate a neutralisation reaction I must know all the factors that affect it in order to investigate in this. Here are all the factors; Temperature - This will defiantly affect an exothermic or endothermic reaction. Concentration - If the solution is made more concentrated it means it contains more particles of reactant, therefore more collisions are likely and an result of this is that the temperature will decrease because bonds are being made. Type of Acid - Different acids all have different properties and can cause different temperatures. Type of Alkali - This is the same as the type of acid but instead the different properties of an alkali. Type of Reaction - Different type of reactions will either be exothermic or endothermic. Example of this is a combustion reaction, which is exothermic because of the heat it gives out. These are the factors that will affect a neutralisation reaction. A neutralisation is either exothermic or endothermic. Exothermic reactions are the reactions that give out energy and therefore the temperature rises as a result of this. Endothermic reactions are the ones that take in energy from the surrounding and cause the temperature to decrease as a result of this. Making and breaking bonds either require energy or give out energy. When breaking bonds it requires energy, which means it's a endothermic reaction because the heat in the surrounding is absorbed to break the chemical bond. ...read more.

Middle

2. Set up the experiment by following the diagram. 3. Pour 10cm3 of hydrochloric acid using a measuring cylinder. 4. Pour the hydrochloric acid into a beaker and measure its temperature for two minutes by using a thermometer. 5. Pour 10cm3 of sodium hydroxide using a measuring cylinder. 6. Pour the sodium hydroxide into a beaker and measure its temperature by using a thermometer. 7. Pour both hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide into the polythene cup. 8. Stick in a thermometer to measure its temperature for two minutes by using a stopwatch. 9. Collect the evidence and record it in a neat table. 10. Do this procedure each time. The plan I produced should help me get through this experiment nice and easy, as it has been analysed carefully. To get accurate results I will repeat the test five times and calculate an average reading by using the equipment as accurately as possible. Hypothesis My prediction is that as the concentration increases the temperature also increases. A neutralisation reaction will be an exothermic reaction because its making bonds. Bond making produces lots of energy and this energy is lost to the surrounding as heat. The reason for my prediction is because as the concentration becomes more diluted it will not contain much hydrogen and chloride ions and therefore not much bond making will occur. As a result of this not much energy will be created and heat will not be lost to the surrounding. ...read more.

Conclusion

There are a few possible ways that a human error could of occurred. ( Reading the temperature of the thermometer incorrectly. ( Measuring the quantities incorrectly. ( A mistake in making the concentration. This anomaly was just off the line of best fit, which clearly means it is not a bad result but not perfect. Overall the results I obtained were correct and is sufficient to support my conclusion and prediction. My evidence is enough to support my conclusion because the prediction I made was correct as shown from my results. To improve my method to get more accurate evidence I would change steps 3 and 5. I would change them to " Pour 10cm3 of hydrochloric acid using a measuring cylinder and pipette". This change to step 3 would also apply to step 5. By doing this I could measure the quantities more accurately and obtain more reliable results. The main problem with this investigation was reading the thermometer incorrectly. This would have an affect on my results. To over come this problem I could have used a digital thermometer. This is more accurate than a normal thermometer. By using this I could get rid of that anomaly to make it fit in with the line of best fit. Further work could have been carried out to get additional relevant evidence. I could of done this experiment with different acids. By doing this I could see if different acids have any affect on a neutralisation reaction and if they follow the same rules as the hydrochloric acid. ...read more.

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