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Investigate a variable that affects the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Rates Investigation Aim: - Investigate a variable that affects the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. I am going to investigate how the strength of the hydrochloric acid affects the rate at which the products are given off between the acid and the calcium carbonate. Preliminary Work: - For my preliminary work I looked at the products of 0.25M and 2M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate. Since the variable is the strength of the acid I kept everything else the same to ensure it was a fair test. I used 10cm3 of each acid measured in a measuring cylinder, a marble chip that weighed 0.7g and I measured the rate of the reaction by seeing how much carbon dioxide was being given off every 30 seconds for four minutes. To find out how much carbon dioxide was given off I used a measuring cylinder full of water and when carbon dioxide was given off it would rise to the top of the cylinder and I could measure the amount given off by seeing how much carbon dioxide was given off. ...read more.

Middle

-5 different strengths of hydrochloric acid -Conical flask with rubber stopper to put the acid and marble chip in -Delivery tube for the carbon dioxide to travel through -Scales to measure the mass of the marble chip which should be 0.7g -Safety goggles to protect eyes against acid spillages Fair Test To make it a fair test the only variable of the experiment will be the concentration of the acid. Everything else will be kept the same. This includes the mass of the marble chip so you can only have one marble chip otherwise there will be more surface area for the acid to react with making the rate of the reaction faster. The amount of acid as if there is more acid then it will have more energy for the particles to collide and react with each other. Results See tables and graphs Conclusion According to these results the hypothesis is correct. My evidence shows me that there is a clear relationship between how fast a reaction takes place and the concentration of the acid. As the concentration of acid increases, the rate of reaction increases. ...read more.

Conclusion

This may have occurred because the consistency of shaking the conical flask was not the same making some results have higher rates than others or the accuracy of the results. To make this practical method more reliable you could again repeat the experiment more times and take more readings for example every 15 seconds opposed to every 30 because this would then enable you to see where it the experiment was going wrong. Also you could extend it for more than 4 minutes because eventually you would expect to find the line curling off because most of the acid particles would be used up making there be less energy for the particles to collide and react. Extra practical work I could do to back up my conclusion would be to look at the other factors affecting the rate of reactions, which are; Temperature As the temperature increases in a reaction the rate of the reaction increases because the higher the temperature the faster the particles move and collide increasing the reaction. Smaller pieces of Marble Breaking up the marble would increase the reaction rate because this increases the total surface area making more particles of the solid have contact with the acid. Catalyst Using a catalyst increases the rate of a reaction but they are not used up. Alice Goode 1 08/05/07 ...read more.

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